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Oil market structure, network effects and the choice of currency for oil invoicing

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  • Mileva, Elitza
  • Siegfried, Nikolaus

Abstract

Crude oil is a homogeneous good traded on specialised exchanges and quoted and invoiced predominantly in US dollars. Despite the strong case for the use of the US dollar as a vehicle currency in the oil trade, we provide an alternative view. We develop a simple network effects model to identify the conditions under which either a complete switch in the oil invoicing currency or parallel invoicing in different currencies is possible and economically sensible. We calibrate the model using low actual values for the transaction costs of using euro and/or US dollars, as well as a proxy for information costs, which decline with the increase in the use of the new currency. The results show that there will be a switch to parallel invoicing in both currencies when two conditions are met: first, oil exporters expect that a certain minimum number of other oil exporters will also start using the new currency; and second, the information costs associated with quoting oil contracts in two currencies are low.

Suggested Citation

  • Mileva, Elitza & Siegfried, Nikolaus, 2012. "Oil market structure, network effects and the choice of currency for oil invoicing," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 385-394.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:44:y:2012:i:c:p:385-394
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.02.002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Barry Eichengreen & Livia Chiu & Arnaud Mehl, 2016. "Network effects, homogeneous goods and international currency choice: New evidence on oil markets from an older era," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(1), pages 173-206, February.
    2. Franco Ruzzenenti & Francesco Picciolo & Andreas Papandreou, 2015. "A network analysis of the global energy market: an insight on the entanglement between crude oil and the world economy," Papers 1509.05894, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2015.
    3. A. Malliaris & Mary Malliaris, 2013. "Are oil, gold and the euro inter-related? Time series and neural network analysis," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 1-14, January.
    4. K. Barhoumi & S. Benk & R. Cristadoro & A. Den Reijer & A. Jakaitiene & P. Jelonek & A. Rua & K. Ruth & C. Van Nieuwenhuyze & G. Rünstler, 2008. "Short-term forecasting of GDP using large monthly datasets – A pseudo real-time forecast evaluation exercise," Working Paper Research 133, National Bank of Belgium.
    5. Filip Novotný, 2012. "The Link Between the Brent Crude Oil Price and the US Dollar Exchange Rate," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2012(2), pages 220-232.
    6. Andreas Breitenfellner & Jesus Crespo Cuaresma, 2008. "Crude Oil Prices and the USD/EUR Exchange Rate," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4.
    7. De Santis, Roberto A. & Cappiello, Lorenzo & Baltzer, Markus & Manganelli, Simone, 2008. "Measuring financial integration in new EU Member States," Occasional Paper Series 81, European Central Bank.
    8. Zhang, Hai-Ying & Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2015. "What drives the formation of global oil trade patterns?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 639-648.
    9. Delbianco, Fernando & Tohmé, Fernando & Stosic, Tatijana & Stosic, Borko, 2016. "Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 457(C), pages 573-580.
    10. Bracke, Thierry & Bussière, Matthieu & Fidora, Michael & Straub, Roland, 2008. "A framework for assessing global imbalances," Occasional Paper Series 78, European Central Bank.

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    Keywords

    Trade invoicing; Network effects; Oil trade;

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