IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2015_05.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Income Distribution in Network Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Corrado Benassi
  • Marcella Scrimitore

Abstract

We enquiry about the effects of first and second order stochastic dominance shifts of the distribution of the consumers’ willingness to pay, within the standard model of a market with network externalities and hump-shaped demand curve. This issue is analyzed in the polar cases of perfect competition and monopoly. We find that, while under perfect competition both types of distributional changes result in higher output, provided marginal costs are low enough, in the monopoly case the final outcome depends on the way income distribution and the network externality interact in determining market demand elasticity.

Suggested Citation

  • Corrado Benassi & Marcella Scrimitore, 2015. "Income Distribution in Network Markets," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 2015/05, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  • Handle: RePEc:eei:rpaper:eeri_rp_2015_05
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.eeri.eu/documents/wp/EERI_RP_2015_05.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Reto Foellmi & Josef Zweimuller, 2006. "Income Distribution and Demand-Induced Innovations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 73(4), pages 941-960.
    2. Joseph Farrell & Garth Saloner, 1985. "Standardization, Compatibility, and Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(1), pages 70-83, Spring.
    3. Yurko, Anna V., 2011. "How does income inequality affect market outcomes in vertically differentiated markets?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 493-503, July.
    4. Arthur, W Brian, 1989. "Competing Technologies, Increasing Returns, and Lock-In by Historical Events," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(394), pages 116-131, March.
    5. Majumder, Amita & Chakravarty, Satya Ranjan, 1990. "Distribution of Personal Income: Development of a New Model and Its Application to U.S. Income Data," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(2), pages 189-196, April-Jun.
    6. David Cuberes & Luis Andrés & Tomás Serebrisky & Mame Astou Diouf, 2010. "The diffusion of Internet: a cross-country analysis," Working Papers. Serie AD 2010-07, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    7. Hahn, Jong-Hee, 2004. "The welfare effect of quality degradation in the presence of network externalities," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 535-552, December.
    8. Kate Adriaan Ten & Niels Gunnar, 2006. "Fulfilled-expectations Equilibria in Network Demand," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 5(3), pages 1-17, September.
    9. Luís Cabral, 2011. "Dynamic Price Competition with Network Effects," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 83-111.
    10. Oz Shy, 2011. "A Short Survey of Network Economics," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 38(2), pages 119-149, March.
    11. Amir, Rabah & Lazzati, Natalia, 2011. "Network effects, market structure and industry performance," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(6), pages 2389-2419.
    12. Menzie D. Chinn & Robert W. Fairlie, 2010. "ICT Use in the Developing World: An Analysis of Differences in Computer and Internet Penetration," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 153-167, February.
    13. Kiiski, Sampsa & Pohjola, Matti, 2002. "Cross-country diffusion of the Internet," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 297-310, June.
    14. Cabral, Luis M. B. & Salant, David J. & Woroch, Glenn A., 1999. "Monopoly pricing with network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 199-214, February.
    15. Irina Suleymanova & Christian Wey, 2012. "On the role of consumer expectations in markets with network effects," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 105(2), pages 101-127, March.
    16. Farrell, Joseph & Saloner, Garth, 1986. "Installed Base and Compatibility: Innovation, Product Preannouncements, and Predation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 940-955, December.
    17. Nicholas Economides, 1997. "The Economics of Networks," Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, vol. 1(0), December.
    18. P. Dogan, "undated". "Vertical Networks, Integration, and Connectivity," Working Paper 33644, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    19. Farrell, Joseph & Klemperer, Paul, 2007. "Coordination and Lock-In: Competition with Switching Costs and Network Effects," Handbook of Industrial Organization, Elsevier.
    20. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: II. Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 38-56, Spring.
    21. Corrado Benassi & Alessandra Chirco, 2004. "Income Distribution, Price Elasticity and the 'Robinson Effect'," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(5), pages 591-600, September.
    22. Jeffrey Rohlfs, 1974. "A Theory of Interdependent Demand for a Communications Service," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 5(1), pages 16-37, Spring.
    23. Corrado Benassi & Alessandra Chirco & Caterina Colombo, 2006. "Vertical Differentiation And The Distribution Of Income," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 345-367, October.
    24. Maria Alipranti & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2013. "Comparative Advertising in Markets with Network Externalities," Working Papers 1306, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    25. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 424-440, June.
    26. Andrés, Luis & Cuberes, David & Diouf, Mame & Serebrisky, Tomás, 0. "The diffusion of the Internet: A cross-country analysis," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5-6), pages 323-340, June.
    27. Corrado Benassi & Alessandra Chirco & Marcella Scrimitore, 2002. "Income concentration and market demand," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(4), pages 584-596, October.
    28. Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979. "Price competition, quality and income disparities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 340-359, June.
    29. Jay Pil Choi, 1994. "Irreversible Choice of Uncertain Technologies with Network Externalities," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(3), pages 382-401, Autumn.
    30. Milne, Claire, 2000. "Affordability of basic telephone service: an income distribution approach," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(10-11), pages 907-927, November.
    31. Kathleen Reavis Conner & Richard P. Rumelt, 1991. "Software Piracy: An Analysis of Protection Strategies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(2), pages 125-139, February.
    32. Luca Lambertini & Raimondello Orsini, 2001. "Network Externalities and the Overprovision of Quality by a Monopolist," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 969-982, April.
    33. John A. Bishop & John P. Formby & W. James Smith, 1993. "International Comparisons of Welfare and Poverty: Dominance Orderings for Ten Countries," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 707-726, August.
    34. Makoto Yano & Fumio Dei, 2006. "Network externalities, discrete demand shifts, and submarginal-cost pricing," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 39(2), pages 455-476, May.
    35. Corrado Benassi & Alessandra Chirco, 2006. "Income Share Elasticity and Stochastic Dominance," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 26(3), pages 511-525, June.
    36. Michael L. Katz & Carl Shapiro, 1994. "Systems Competition and Network Effects," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 93-115, Spring.
    37. Economides, Nicholas, 1996. "Network externalities, complementarities, and invitations to enter," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 211-233, September.
    38. Swann, G. M. Peter, 2002. "The functional form of network effects," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 417-429, September.
    39. Anderson, Gordon, 1996. "Nonparametric Tests of Stochastic Dominance in Income Distributions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1183-1193, September.
    40. Esteban, Joan M, 1986. "Income-Share Elasticity and the Size Distribution of Income," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(2), pages 439-444, June.
    41. Irina Suleymanova & Christian Wey, 2008. "On the (Mis-) Alignment of Consumer and Social Welfare in Markets with Network Effects," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 794, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    42. Mocnik, Dijana & Sirec, Karin, 2010. "The determinants of Internet use controlling for income level: Cross-country empirical evidence," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 243-256, July.
    43. Andres, Luis & Cuberes, David & Diouf, Mame Astou & Serebrisky, Tomas, 2007. "Diffusion of the internet : a cross-country analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4420, The World Bank.
    44. Ari Hyytinen & Otto Toivanen, 2011. "Income Inequality and Technology Diffusion: Evidence from Developing Countries," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 113, pages 364-387, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Network externalities; income distribution; stochastic dominance.;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D40 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - General
    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eei:rpaper:eeri_rp_2015_05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Julia van Hove). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/eeriibe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.