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On the Determinants of Exporters' Currency Pricing: History vs. Expectations

  • Shin-ichi Fukuda
  • Masanori Ono

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why the choice of invoice currency under exchange rate uncertainty depends not only on expectations but also on history. The analysis is motivated by the fact that the U.S. dollar has historically been the dominant vehicle currency in developing countries. The theoretical analysis is based on an open economy model of monopolistic competition. When the market is competitive enough, the exporting firms tend to set their prices not to deviate from those of the competitors. As a result, a coordination failure can lead the third currency to be a less efficient equilibrium invoice currency. The role of expectations is important in selecting the equilibrium in the static framework. However, in the dynamic model with staggered price-setting, the role of history becomes another key determinant of the equilibrium currency pricing. The role of history may dominate the role of expectations when the firms are myopic, particularly in the competitive local market. It also becomes dominant in the staggered price setting when a small fraction of the new price setters are backward-looking. The result suggests the importance of history in explaining why the firm tends to choose the US dollar as vehicle currency.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12432.

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Date of creation: Aug 2006
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Publication status: published as Fukuda, Shin-ichi & Ono, Masanori, 2006. "On the determinants of exporters' currency pricing: History vs. expectations," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 548-568, December.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12432
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  1. Michael B. Devereux & Charles Engel & Peter E. Storgaard, 2003. "Endogenous Exchange Rate Pass-through when Nominal Prices are Set in Advance," NBER Working Papers 9543, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  14. Taylor, John B., 2000. "Low inflation, pass-through, and the pricing power of firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(7), pages 1389-1408, June.
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  16. McKinnon, Ronald I., 1979. "Money in International Exchange: The Convertible Currency System," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195024098, March.
  17. Shin-ichi Fukuda, 1995. "The Structural Determinants of Invoice Currencies in Japan: The Case of Foreign Trades with East Asian Countries," Discussion Paper Series a307, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  18. Oi, Hiroyuki & Otani, Akira & Shirota, Toyoichiro, 2004. "The Choice of Invoice Currency in International Trade: Implications for the Internationalization of the Yen," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 22(1), pages 27-63, March.
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