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Currency invoicing in Norwegian salmon export

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    The purpose of this paper is to examine the choice of currency for Norwegian salmon exporters. The choice of invoicing currency will affect prices in different markets as well as risk, factors that are becoming increasingly important as the supply chain for salmon is becoming more sophisticated, and more transactions mechanisms introduced. The results indicate that destination specific market characteristics have impacts as to the choice of invoicing strategy. Norwegian salmon exporters primarily invoice in the export market currency (47% of the exported quantity), but also use a vehicle currency and producer pricing (19%) in a significant number of transactions. Euro is the preferred vehicle currency (18%), closely followed by USD (16%). USD is the dominating invoicing currency for exports beyond Europe.

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    File URL: http://www.uib.no/sites/w3.uib.no/files/attachments/11.13.pdf
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    Paper provided by University of Bergen, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 11/13.

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    Length: 24 pages
    Date of creation: 18 Dec 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:bergec:2013_011
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Institutt for økonomi, Universitetet i Bergen, Postboks 7802, 5020 Bergen, Norway
    Phone: (+47)55589200
    Fax: (+47)55589210
    Web page: http://www.uib.no/econ/enEmail:


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    1. Johnson, Martin & Pick, Daniel, 1997. "Currency Quandary: The Choice of Invoicing Currency under Exchange-Rate Uncertainty," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 118-28, February.
    2. Shin-ichi Fukuda & Masanori Ono, 2006. "On the Determinants of Exporters' Currency Pricing: History vs. Expectations," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-442, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    3. Jenny E. Ligthart & Sebastian E. V. Werner, 2011. "Has the Euro Affected the Choice of Invoicing Currency?," CAMA Working Papers 2011-03, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    4. Kristin Roll, 2013. "Measuring performance, development and growth when restricting flexibility," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 15-25, February.
    5. Asche, Frank & Tveteras, Ragnar, 1999. "Modeling Production Risk With A Two-Step Procedure," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 24(02), December.
    6. Giovannini, Alberto, 1988. "Exchange rates and traded goods prices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 45-68, February.
    7. Tveterås, Ragnar & Heshmati, Almas, 1999. "Patterns of Productivity Growth in the Norwegian Salmon Farming Industry," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 301, Stockholm School of Economics.
    8. P. Bacchetta & E. van Wincoop, 2002. "A Theory of the Currency Denomination of International Trade," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 75, Netherlands Central Bank.
    9. Patrice Guillotreau & Laurent Le Grel & Michel Simioni, 2005. "Price-Cost Margins and Structural Change: Sub-Contracting within the Salmon Marketing Chain," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 581-597, November.
    10. A. Colin Cameron & Pravin K. Trivedi, 2010. "Microeconometrics Using Stata, Revised Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, number musr, December.
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    12. Takatoshi Ito & Satoshi Koibuchi & Kiyotaka Sato & Junko Shimizu, 2010. "Why has the yen failed to become a dominant invoicing currency in Asia? A firm-level analysis of Japanese Exporters' invoicing behavior," NBER Working Papers 16231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Michael B. Devereux & Charles Engel & Peter E. Storgaard, 2003. "Endogenous Exchange Rate Pass-through when Nominal Prices are Set in Advance," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0304, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    14. Shabtai Donnenfeld & Alfred Haug, 2003. "Currency Invoicing in International Trade: an Empirical Investigation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 332-345, 05.
    15. Grassman, Sven, 1973. "A fundamental symmetry in international payment patterns," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 105-116, May.
    16. Friberg, Richard, 1998. "In which currency should exporters set their prices?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 59-76, June.
    17. Mark David Witte, 2010. "Currency Invoicing: The Role of 'Herding' and Exchange Rate Volatility," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 357-374.
    18. Donnenfeld, S. & Zilcha, I., 1989. "Pricing Of Exports And Exchange Rate Uncertainty," Papers 12-89, Tel Aviv.
    19. Floden, Martin & Wilander, Fredrik, 2006. "State dependent pricing, invoicing currency, and exchange rate pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 178-196, September.
    20. Sigbjorn Tveteras & Frank Asche, 2008. "International fish trade and exchange rates: an application to the trade with salmon and fishmeal," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(13), pages 1745-1755.
    21. Ragnar Tveteras & George E. Battese, 2006. "Agglomeration Externalities, Productivity, And Technical Inefficiency," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 605-625.
    22. Guillotreau, Patrice & Jiménez-Toribio, Ramón, 2011. "The price effect of expanding fish auction markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 211-225, August.
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