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Trade Invoicing in Major Currencies in the 1970s–1990s: Lessons for Renminbi Internationalization

In: International Finance in the Global Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Hiro Ito
  • Masahiro Kawai

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate how much a major currency is used for trade invoicing by focusing primarily on the experiences of the U.S. dollar, the Japanese yen, and the Deutsche mark (DM) in the 1970s through the 1990s. We then attempt to draw lessons for China's renminbi (RMB) internationalization. Our data on the shares of the three major currencies in export invoicing show that the dollar was unequivocally a global invoicing currency, and that the DM was the most important regional currency in Europe while the yen was never a global or a regional currency. DM invoicing was driven by European countries’ trade ties with Germany. In contrast, the yen was not widely used for trade invoicing by Asia–Oceania countries despite the latter's strong trade ties with Japan. Our regression analysis on the determinants of the major currency share in trade invoicing (also including UK pound sterling, the French franc, the Italian lira, and the Swiss franc) in the 1970–1998 period shows that the invoicing share of a major currency tended to be positively affected by the degree of other economies’ trade ties with the major currency country and negatively affected by the degree of their financial development or openness. Also, the major currency share in trade invoicing was affected by both other economies' assigned weights of the major currency in their implicit currency baskets and these economies’ trade shares with major-currency zone countries. Economies belonging to the U.S. dollar (or DM) zone tended to invoice their trade more in the dollar (or DM) and less in the DM (or dollar). The use of yen for trade invoicing was not much affected by these factors. European countries largely belonged to the DM zone and tended to use the DM for trade invoicing, whereas Asia–Oceania countries belonged mainly to the U.S. dollar zone, leading to a high degree of dollar use. We also find that major currency countries tended to invoice their trade in their own currencies when they had a la
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Hiro Ito & Masahiro Kawai, 2015. "Trade Invoicing in Major Currencies in the 1970s–1990s: Lessons for Renminbi Internationalization," NBER Chapters,in: International Finance in the Global Markets National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:13727
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    1. repec:eee:jimfin:v:74:y:2017:i:c:p:258-282 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Joshua Aizenman & Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2017. "Financial Spillovers and Macroprudential Policies," NBER Working Papers 24105, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2017. "Balance sheet effects on monetary and financial spillovers: The East Asian crisis plus 20," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 258-282.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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