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Modeling Production Risk With A Two-Step Procedure

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  • Asche, Frank
  • Tveteras, Ragnar

Abstract

This study deals with modeling of production risk by means of a two-step procedure. In contrast to earlier studies of production risk, we do not immediately adopt restrictive functional forms for the risky production technology. We first test for the presence of production risk. If production risk is found to be present, the mean and risk functions are estimated separately. This allows the use of more flexible functional forms for both the mean and the risk functions than commonly found in the literature. An empirical application to Norwegian salmon farming, where restrictive specifications of the technology are rejected, demonstrates the validity of our approach. Presence of production risk many primary production sectors implies that this approach should be considered in productivity studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Asche, Frank & Tveteras, Ragnar, 1999. "Modeling Production Risk With A Two-Step Procedure," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 24(2), pages 1-16, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jlaare:30790
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Arne Hallam & Rashid M. Hassan & B. D'Silva, 1989. "Measuring Stochastic Technology for the Multi-product Firm: The Irrigated Farms of Sudan," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 37(3), pages 495-512, November.
    2. G. H. Wan & J. R. Anderson, 1990. "Estimating Risk Effects In Chinese Foodgrain Production," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(1), pages 85-93.
    3. Wan, Guang H & Griffiths, William E & Anderson, Jock R, 1992. "Using Panel Data to Estimate Risk Effects in Seemingly Unrelated Production Functions," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 35-49.
    4. Hurd, Brian H., 1994. "Yield Response And Production Risk: An Analysis Of Integrated Pest Management In Cotton," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 19(2), pages 1-14, December.
    5. MacKinnon, James G, 1992. "Model Specification Tests and Artificial Regressions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 102-146, March.
    6. Kumbhakar, Sabul C., 1993. "Production risk, technical efficiency, and panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 11-16.
    7. T. Bjørndal & K. G. Salvanes, 1995. "Gains From Deregulation? An Empirical Test For Efficiency Gains In The Norwegian Fish Farming Industry," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(1), pages 113-126.
    8. Antle, John M., 1983. "Incorporating Risk In Production Analysis," 1983 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 3, West Lafayette, Indiana 279106, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-1294, September.
    10. Just, Richard E. & Pope, Rulon D., 1978. "Stochastic specification of production functions and economic implications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 67-86, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Roberts, Roland K. & Walters, Jeremy T. & Larson, James A. & English, Burton C. & Howard, Donald D., 2004. "Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization Rates in Winter Wheat Production as Affected by Risk, Disease, and Nitrogen Source," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(01), pages 199-211, April.
    2. Asche, Frank & Misund, Bard, 2015. "Hedging Efficiency of Atlantic Salmon Futures," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2015/12, University of Stavanger.
    3. Asche, Frank & Guttormsen, Atle G. & Roll, Kristin H., 2006. "Modelling Production Risk in Small Scale Subsistence Agriculture," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25574, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Zhang, Ruojin, 2016. "The Effects of Residue Tolerance on Pesticide Use, Hop Marketing and Social Welfare," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts 235155, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Khayyat, Nabaz T. & Heshmati, Almas, 2014. "Production Risk, Energy Use Efficiency and Productivity of Korean Industries," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 359, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    6. Antti Saastamoinen, 2015. "Heteroscedasticity Or Production Risk? A Synthetic View," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(3), pages 459-478, July.
    7. Straume, Hans-Martin, 2013. "Currency invoicing in Norwegian salmon export," Working Papers in Economics 11/13, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    8. Misund, Bård, 2015. "Financial Ratios and Prediction on Corporate Bankruptcy in the Atlantic Salmon Industry," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2015/9, University of Stavanger.
    9. Asche, Frank & Misund, Bård & Oglend, Atle, 2016. "Determinants of the Atlantic salmon futures risk premium," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 6-17.
    10. Zeytoon Nejad Moosavian, Seyyed Ali & Goodwin, Barry K., 2018. "GENERALIZING THE GENERAL: Generalizing the CES Production Function to Allow for the Flexibility of Input-Driven Output Risk and Viability of Input Thresholds," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274352, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Ragnar Tveteras & Ola Flaten & Gudbrand Lien, 2011. "Production risk in multi-output industries: estimates from Norwegian dairy farms," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(28), pages 4403-4414.
    12. repec:eee:jocoma:v:12:y:2018:i:c:p:60-70 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:eee:jocoma:v:12:y:2018:i:c:p:71-79 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:ags:jordng:266400 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Tomasz Gerard Czekaj & Arne Henningsen, 2013. "Panel Data Nonparametric Estimation of Production Risk and Risk Preferences: An Application to Polish Dairy Farms," IFRO Working Paper 2013/6, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    16. Asche, Frank & Misund, Bard & Oglend, Atle, 2015. "Production Risk and the Futures Price Risk Premium?," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2015/13, University of Stavanger.
    17. Murat Isik & Madhu Khanna, 2003. "Stochastic Technology, Risk Preferences, and Adoption of Site-Specific Technologies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 305-317.
    18. Subal Kumbhakar & Efthymios Tsionas, 2010. "Estimation of production risk and risk preference function: a nonparametric approach," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 176(1), pages 369-378, April.
    19. Kristin Roll, 2013. "Measuring performance, development and growth when restricting flexibility," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 15-25, February.
    20. Howard, Donald D. & English, Burton C. & Larson, James A. & Roberts, Roland K. & Walters, Jeremy T., 2004. "Effects Of Risk, Disease, And Nitrogen Source On Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization Rates In Winter Wheat Production," 2004 Annual Meeting, February 14-18, 2004, Tulsa, Oklahoma 34688, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    21. Jaenicke, Edward C. & Frechette, Darren L. & Larson, James A., 2003. "Estimating Production Risk and Inefficiency Simultaneously: An Application to Cotton Cropping Systems," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 1-18, December.
    22. Cornelis Gardebroek & María Daniela Chavez & Alfons Oude Lansink, 2010. "Analysing Production Technology and Risk in Organic and Conventional Dutch Arable Farming using Panel Data," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(1), pages 60-75.
    23. repec:bla:jageco:v:69:y:2018:i:3:p:756-776 is not listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    Production Economics;

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