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Oil Currency and the Dollar Standard: A Simple Analytical Model of an International Trade Currency




The U.S. dollar is the central reference currency for international trade pricing and the main invoicing currency for primary commodities. This paper links these two observations within a stylized theoretical framework, and shows how to obtain a quantitative estimate of the gain to the U.S. economy when the dollar is a reference currency. With dollar invoicing of primary commodities, U.S. firms bear less exchange rate risk than foreign firms. This asymmetry leads to a dollar standard in international goods pricing. We then derive a simple analytical formula to calculate the gains and find that they are extremely small. Copyright (c) 2010 The Ohio State University.

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  • Michael B. Devereux & Kang Shi & Juanyi Xu, 2010. "Oil Currency and the Dollar Standard: A Simple Analytical Model of an International Trade Currency," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(4), pages 521-550, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:42:y:2010:i:4:p:521-550

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    Cited by:

    1. Kai Liu, 2014. "Dollar Hegemony and China's Economy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1410, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    2. Liu, Qing & Shi, Kang & Wu, Zhouheng & Xu, Juanyi, 2014. "Oil price stabilization and global welfare," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 246-260.
    3. Daniel Gersten Reiss, 2015. "Invoice currency: Puzzling evidence and new questions from Brazil," Economia, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics], vol. 16(2), pages 206-225.
    4. Ponomareva, Natalia & Sheen, Jeffrey & Wang, Ben, 2015. "The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?," MPRA Paper 68966, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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