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The internationalization of the dollar and trade balance adjustment

  • Linda Goldberg
  • Cedric Tille

The pattern of international trade adjustment is affected by the continuing international role of the dollar and related evidence on exchange rate pass-through to prices. This paper argues that a depreciation of the dollar would have asymmetric effects on flows between the United States and its trading partners. With low exchange rate pass-through to U.S. import prices and high exchange rate pass-through to the local prices of countries consuming U.S. exports, the effect of dollar depreciation on real trade flows is dominated by an adjustment in U.S. export quantities, which increase as U.S. goods become cheaper in the rest of the world. Real U.S. imports are affected less because U.S. prices are more insulated from exchange rate movements-pass-through is low and dollar invoicing is high. In relation to prices, the effects on the U.S. terms of trade are limited: U.S. exporters earn the same amount of dollars for each unit shipped abroad, and U.S. consumers do not encounter more expensive imports. Movements in dollar exchange rates also affect the international trade transactions of countries invoicing some of their trade in dollars, even when these countries are not transacting directly with the United States.

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 255.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:255
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  18. Michael Devereux & Charles Engel & Cedric Tille, 1999. "Exchange-Rate Pass-Through and the Welfare Effects of the Euro," Working Papers 0034, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  19. Oi, Hiroyuki & Otani, Akira & Shirota, Toyoichiro, 2004. "The Choice of Invoice Currency in International Trade: Implications for the Internationalization of the Yen," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 22(1), pages 27-63, March.
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