IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v144y2020ics0301421520304171.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Spatial spillovers of pollution onto the underground sector

Author

Listed:
  • Goel, Rajeev K.
  • Saunoris, James W.

Abstract

This paper examines the spatial spillovers of pollution onto the underground economy. The extant literature has considered the pollution-informal economy nexus to some extent, but the spillover effects across national borders have been ignored. Pollution can increase the underground sector when some formal sector production moves to the informal sector (“scale effect”), whereas greater pollution can reduce the underground sector when it invites tougher regulations (“substitution effect”). Results, based on a panel of more than 130 nations and allowing for reverse causality, show both own- and border pollution reduce the underground sector - consistent with the substitution effect. In other results, we find opposite effects of economic and political freedom, and some differences in the influences of specific dimensions of economic freedom and the role of the government. Further, we find that while the size of government increases the underground sector, better institutional quality reduces it. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. The spillovers from neighboring nations are especially relevant for nations that are not islands, which is true for a majority of countries around the world.

Suggested Citation

  • Goel, Rajeev K. & Saunoris, James W., 2020. "Spatial spillovers of pollution onto the underground sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:144:y:2020:i:c:s0301421520304171
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111688
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421520304171
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111688?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Aziz N. Berdiev & James W. Saunoris, 2019. "On the Relationship Between Income Inequality and the Shadow Economy," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 224-249, April.
    2. Aziz N. Berdiev & James W. Saunoris & Friedrich Schneider, 2018. "Give Me Liberty, or I Will Produce Underground: Effects of Economic Freedom on the Shadow Economy," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 85(2), pages 537-562, October.
    3. Rajeev K. Goel & Edward W. T. Hsieh, 2004. "Durable Emissions and Optimal Pigouvian Taxes," Public Finance Review, , vol. 32(4), pages 441-449, July.
    4. Goel, Rajeev K. & Herrala, Risto & Mazhar, Ummad, 2013. "Institutional quality and environmental pollution: MENA countries versus the rest of the world," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 508-521.
    5. Balado-Naves, Roberto & Baños-Pino, José Francisco & Mayor, Matías, 2018. "Do countries influence neighbouring pollution? A spatial analysis of the EKC for CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 266-279.
    6. You, Wanhai & Lv, Zhike, 2018. "Spillover effects of economic globalization on CO2 emissions: A spatial panel approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 248-257.
    7. Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2006. "Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 97-126, July.
    8. David Giles, 1997. "Causality between the measured and underground economies in New Zealand," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 63-67.
    9. Schneider Friedrich, 2010. "The Influence of Public Institutions on the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation for OECD Countries," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(3), pages 441-468, December.
    10. Benkraiem, Ramzi & Lahiani, Amine & Miloudi, Anthony & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2019. "The asymmetric role of shadow economy in the energy-growth nexus in Bolivia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 405-417.
    11. Goel, Rajeev K. & Hsieh, Edward W.T., 2006. "On coordinating environmental policy and technology policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 897-908, November.
    12. Elgin, Ceyhun & Oztunali, Oguz, 2014. "Pollution and informal economy," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 333-349.
    13. Goel, Rajeev K. & Nelson, Michael A., 2016. "Shining a light on the shadows: Identifying robust determinants of the shadow economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 351-364.
    14. Friedrich Schneider & Dominik Enste, 1999. "Shadow Economies Around the World - Size, Causes, and Consequences," CESifo Working Paper Series 196, CESifo.
    15. Herrala, Risto & Goel, Rajeev K., 2016. "Sharing the emission reduction burden in an uneven world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 29-39.
    16. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588.
    17. Starrett, David A., 2003. "Property rights, public goods and the environment," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 3, pages 97-125, Elsevier.
    18. Biswas, Amit K. & Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza & Thum, Marcel, 2012. "Pollution, shadow economy and corruption: Theory and evidence," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 114-125.
    19. Fadly, Dalia & Fontes, Francisco, 2019. "Geographical proximity and renewable energy diffusion: An empirical approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 422-435.
    20. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2017. "Factors affecting CO2 emissions in China’s agriculture sector: Evidence from geographically weighted regression model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 404-414.
    21. Zofio, Jose L. & Prieto, Angel M., 2001. "Environmental efficiency and regulatory standards: the case of CO2 emissions from OECD industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 63-83, January.
    22. Markandya, Anil & González-Eguino, Mikel & Escapa, Marta, 2013. "From shadow to green: Linking environmental fiscal reforms and the informal economy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 108-118.
    23. Blázquez Gomez, Leticia M. & Filippini, Massimo & Heimsch, Fabian, 2013. "Regional impact of changes in disposable income on Spanish electricity demand: A spatial econometric analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 58-66.
    24. Friedrich SCHNEIDER, 2016. "Estimating the Size of the Shadow Economy: Methods, Problems and Open Questions," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 256-280, June.
    25. Blackman, Allen & Shih, Jhih-Shyang & Evans, David & Batz, Michael & Newbold, Stephen & Cook, Joseph, 2006. "The benefits and costs of informal sector pollution control: Mexican brick kilns," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(5), pages 603-627, October.
    26. World Bank, 2017. "World Development Indicators 2017," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 26447, July.
    27. Case, Anne C. & Rosen, Harvey S. & Hines, James Jr., 1993. "Budget spillovers and fiscal policy interdependence : Evidence from the states," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 285-307, October.
    28. Rios, Vicente & Gianmoena, Lisa, 2018. "Convergence in CO2 emissions: A spatial economic analysis with cross-country interactions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 222-238.
    29. Soham Baksi & Pinaki Bose, 2010. "Environmental Regulation in the Presence of an Informal Sector," Departmental Working Papers 2010-03, The University of Winnipeg, Department of Economics.
    30. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
    31. Shoji Haruna & Rajeev K. Goel, 2019. "Optimal pollution control in a mixed oligopoly with research spillovers," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(1), pages 21-40, March.
    32. Leandro Medina & Friedrich Schneider, 2017. "Shadow Economies around the World: New Results for 158 Countries over 1991-2015," CESifo Working Paper Series 6430, CESifo.
    33. Rajeev Goel & James Saunoris, 2014. "Global corruption and the shadow economy: spatial aspects," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 161(1), pages 119-139, October.
    34. Bolin, Bert, 2003. "Geophysical and geochemical aspects of environmental degradation," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 7-59, Elsevier.
    35. Herrala, Risto & Goel, Rajeev K., 2012. "Global CO2 efficiency: Country-wise estimates using a stochastic cost frontier," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 762-770.
    36. Bento, Antonio M. & Jacobsen, Mark R. & Liu, Antung A., 2018. "Environmental policy in the presence of an informal sector," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 61-77.
    37. Frederick Solt, 2016. "The Standardized World Income Inequality Database," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 97(5), pages 1267-1281, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Han, Yonghui & Zhang, Fan & Huang, Liangxiong & Peng, Keming & Wang, Xianbin, 2021. "Does industrial upgrading promote eco-efficiency? ─A panel space estimation based on Chinese evidence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Aziz N. Berdiev & James W. Saunoris & Friedrich Schneider, 2020. "Poverty and the shadow economy: The role of governmental institutions," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 921-947, April.
    2. Goel, Rajeev K. & Saunoris, James W. & Schneider, Friedrich, 2019. "Drivers of the underground economy for over a century: A long term look for the United States," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 95-106.
    3. Goel, Rajeev K. & Herrala, Risto & Mazhar, Ummad, 2013. "Institutional quality and environmental pollution: MENA countries versus the rest of the world," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 508-521.
    4. Schneider Friedrich & Buehn Andreas, 2017. "Shadow Economy: Estimation Methods, Problems, Results and Open questions," Open Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-29, March.
    5. Aziz N. Berdiev & James W. Saunoris, 2020. "Cross‐Country Evidence Of Corruption Spillovers To Formal And Informal Entrepreneurship," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 48-66, January.
    6. Canh, Nguyen Phuc & Schinckus, Christophe & Thanh, Su Dinh & Chong, Felicia Hui Ling, 2021. "The determinants of the energy consumption: A shadow economy-based perspective," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 225(C).
    7. Nguyen Phuc Canh & Su Dinh Thanh & Christophe Schinckus & Jo Bensemann & Lai Trung Thanh, 2019. "Global Emissions: A New Contribution from the Shadow Economy," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(3), pages 320-337.
    8. Cong Minh Huynh, 2020. "Shadow economy and air pollution in developing Asia: what is the role of fiscal policy?," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 22(3), pages 357-381, July.
    9. Aziz N. Berdiev & James W. Saunoris, 2019. "On the Relationship Between Income Inequality and the Shadow Economy," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 224-249, April.
    10. Elbahnasawy, Nasr G., 2021. "Can e-government limit the scope of the informal economy?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    11. Juergen Bitzer & Erkan Goeren, 2018. "Foreign Aid and Subnational Development: A Grid Cell Analysis," Working Papers V-407-18, University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2018.
    12. Rajeev K. Goel & James W. Saunoris & Xingyuan Zhang, 2016. "Intranational And International Knowledge Flows: Effects On The Formal And Informal Sectors," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(2), pages 297-311, April.
    13. Friedrich SCHNEIDER, 2016. "Estimating the Size of the Shadow Economy: Methods, Problems and Open Questions," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 256-280, June.
    14. Rajeev K. Goel & James W. Saunoris & Friedrich Schneider, 2019. "Growth In The Shadows: Effect Of The Shadow Economy On U.S. Economic Growth Over More Than A Century," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(1), pages 50-67, January.
    15. Schneider, Friedrich & Khan, Shabeer & Baharom Abdul Hamid & Khan, Abidullah, 2019. "Does the tax undermine the effect of remittances on shadow economy?," Economics Discussion Papers 2019-67, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    16. Feige, Edgar L., 2015. "Reflections on the meaning and measurement of Unobserved Economies: What do we really know about the “Shadow Economy”?," MPRA Paper 68466, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Lv, Zhike & Gao, Zhenya, 2021. "The effect of corruption on environmental performance: Does spatial dependence play a role?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(2).
    18. Basbay, Mustafa Metin & Elgin, Ceyhun & Torul, Orhan, 2016. "Energy consumption and the size of the informal economy," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 10, pages 1-28.
    19. Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza & Hassan, Mai & Badreldin, Ahmed Mohamed, 2020. "Economic liberalization in Egypt: A way to reduce the shadow economy?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 307-327.
    20. Zhimin Zhou, 2019. "The Underground Economy and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Emissions in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-20, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pollution; Underground economy; Government; Spillovers; Spatial analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • P37 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Legal
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:144:y:2020:i:c:s0301421520304171. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.