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The Influence of Public Institutions on the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation for OECD Countries


  • Schneider Friedrich

    () (University of Linz)


The size and development of the shadow economy of 21 OECD countries is estimated, using the MIMIC estimation procedure. The analysis finds that an increased burden of taxation and social security payments, combined with intensive labor market regulation, quality of state institutions, and tax morale, are the driving forces for the shadow economy. The public institution of federalism has no statistically significant effect on the shadow economy. Finally, on the one side, incentive-oriented policy means are suggested so that any black value added can be transformed into official value added, and on the other side, it is important to have public institutions which work efficiently and act as a constraint for selfish politicians.

Suggested Citation

  • Schneider Friedrich, 2010. "The Influence of Public Institutions on the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation for OECD Countries," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(3), pages 441-468, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:rlecon:v:6:y:2010:i:3:n:7

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kirchler, Erich & Maciejovsky, Boris & Schneider, Friedrich, 2003. "Everyday representations of tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 535-553, August.
    2. Schneider, Friedrich, 2005. "Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 598-642, September.
    3. Friedrich G. Schneider, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really know?," Economics working papers 2006-17, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    4. repec:mes:jeciss:v:33:y:1999:i:3:p:579-607 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Lars P. Feld & Bruno S. Frey, 2002. "Trust breeds trust: How taxpayers are treated," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 87-99, July.
    6. Klovland, Jan Tore, 1984. " Tax Evasion and the Demand for Currency in Norway and Sweden. Is There a Hidden Relationship?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(4), pages 423-439.
    7. Tilman Bruck & John P. Haisken-De New & Klaus Zimmermann, 2006. "Creating low skilled jobs by subsidizing market-contracted household work," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 899-911.
    8. Colin Williams & Jan Windebank, 2001. "Reconceptualising Paid Informal Exchange: Some Lessons from English Cities," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 33(1), pages 121-140, January.
    9. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 370-380, June.
    10. Annette Mummert & Friedrich Schneider, 2001. "The German Shadow Economy: Parted in a United Germany?," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 58(3), pages 286-286, July.
    11. Dixon, Huw, 1999. "Controversy: On the Use of the 'Hidden Economy' Estimates," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 335-337, June.
    12. Christopher Bajada & Friedrich Schneider, 2005. "The Shadow Economies Of The Asia-Pacific," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(3), pages 379-401, October.
    13. Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobatón, Pablo, 1998. "Corruption, public finances and the unofficial economy," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 34372, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    14. Andreas Buehn & Alexander Karmann & Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Shadow Economy and Do-it-Yourself Activities: The German Case," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 165(4), pages 701-722, December.
    15. Feige, Edgar L, 1994. "The Underground Economy and the Currency Enigma," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 49(Supplemen), pages 119-136.
    16. Dell'Anno, Roberto, "undated". "Estimating the Shadow Economy in Italy: a Structural Equation Approach," Economics Working Papers 2003-7, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    17. Martin Halla & Friedrich G. Schneider, 2005. "Taxes and Benefits: Two Distinct Options to Cheat on the State?," Economics working papers 2005-05, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    18. Thomas, Jim, 1999. "Quantifying the Black Economy: 'Measurement without Theory' Yet Again?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 381-389, June.
    19. Christopher Bajada & Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Unemployment and the Shadow Economy in the oecd," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1033-1067.
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    Cited by:

    1. Schneider, Friedrich, 2012. "The Shadow Economy and Work in the Shadow: What Do We (Not) Know?," IZA Discussion Papers 6423, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Germana Giombini & Désirée Teobaldelli, 2012. "The effects of tax evasion and the inefficiency of the legal system on firms’ financial constraints: are they complements or substitutes?," Working Papers 1207, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Economics, Society & Politics - Scientific Committee - L. Stefanini & G. Travaglini, revised 2012.
    3. Friedrich Schneider, 2014. "In the Shadow of the State – The Informal Economy and Informal Economy Labor Force," DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, European Association Comenius - EACO, issue 4, pages 227-248, December.
    4. Mai Hassan & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Modelling the Egyptian Shadow Economy: A Currency Demand and A MIMIC Model Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 5727, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Schneider, Friedrich & Buehn, Andreas, 2012. "Shadow Economies in Highly Developed OECD Countries: What Are the Driving Forces?," IZA Discussion Papers 6891, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Friedrich SCHNEIDER, 2016. "Estimating the Size of the Shadow Economy: Methods, Problems and Open Questions," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 256-280, June.
    7. Capasso, Salvatore & Jappelli, Tullio, 2013. "Financial development and the underground economy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 167-178.
    8. repec:bdi:opques:qef_144_01 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:ces:ifodic:v:14:y:2017:i:4:p:19267788 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Guerino Ardizzi & Eleonora Iachini, 2013. "Why are payment habits so heterogeneous across and within countries? Evidence from European countries and Italian regions," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 144, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    11. Friedrich Schneider, 2017. "Estimating the Size of the Shadow Economies of Highly-developed Countries: Selected New Results," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 14(4), pages 44-53, 02.
    12. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan & Mai Hassan, 2017. "The impact of economic globalization on the shadow economy in Egypt," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201718, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    13. Friedrich Schneider, 2013. "Size and Progression of the Shadow Economies of Turkey and Other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2013; Some New Facts," Ekonomi-tek - International Economics Journal, Turkish Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 83-116, May.
    14. Feige, Edgar L., 2015. "Reflections on the meaning and measurement of Unobserved Economies: What do we really know about the “Shadow Economy”?," MPRA Paper 68466, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Guerino Ardizzi & Carmelo Petraglia & Massimiliano Piacenza & Gilberto Turati, 2011. "Measuring the Shadow Economy with the Currency Demand Approach - A Reinterpretation of the methodology, with an application to Italy," Working papers 22, Former Department of Economics and Public Finance "G. Prato", University of Torino.
    16. Zafiris Tzannatos & Yannis Monogios, 2013. "Public sector adjustment amidst structural adjustment in Greece: Subordinate, spasmodic and sporadic," Chapters,in: Public Sector Shock, chapter 7, pages 259-299 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Goel, Rajeev K. & Saunoris, James W. & Schneider, Friedrich, 2017. "Growth in the Shadows: Effect of the Shadow Economy on U.S. Economic Growth over More Than a Century," IZA Discussion Papers 10705, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Hassan, Mai & Schneider, Friedrich, 2016. "Size and Development of the Shadow Economies of 157 Countries Worldwide: Updated and New Measures from 1999 to 2013," IZA Discussion Papers 10281, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Schneider, Friedrich, 2014. "The Shadow Economy and Shadow Labor Force: A Survey of Recent Developments," IZA Discussion Papers 8278, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Goel, Rajeev K. & Saunoris, James W. & Schneider, Friedrich, 2017. "Drivers of the Underground Economy around the Millienium: A Long Term Look for the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 10857, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    21. Friedrich Schneider & Désirée Teobaldelli, 2012. "Beyond the Veil of Ignorance: The Influence of Direct Democracy on the Shadow Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 3749, CESifo Group Munich.
    22. Schneider Friedrich, 2015. "Schattenwirtschaft und Schattenarbeitsmarkt: Die Entwicklungen der vergangenen 20 Jahre," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 16(1), pages 3-25, March.
    23. Fedotenkov, Igor & Schneider, Friedrich, 2017. "Military expenditures and shadow economy in the Baltic States: Is there a link?," MPRA Paper 76194, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. Hassan, Mai, 2017. "The impact of the shadow economy on aid and economic development nexus in Egypt," MPRA Paper 80990, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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