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Unemployment and the Shadow Economy in the oecd

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  • Christopher Bajada
  • Friedrich Schneider

Abstract

Although there has been considerable discussion on the size of the shadow economy, comparatively little attention has been given to relationship between unemployment and participation in this sector. The objective of this paper is to examine participation in the shadow economy by those who claim to be unemployed and in receipt of social security benefits but working surreptitiously in the shadow economy. In doing so, we provide a first attempt at gauging the contributions by the unemployed to shadow economy activity. It is of considerable policy interest to know how the extent and duration of shadow economy activity are influenced by changes in the unemployment rate. A significant positive relationship between shadow economy activity and unemployment can be said to generate employment cycles in the shadow economy, which if supported by welfare payments, distorts the equity in the social security system. We find that changes in unemployment contribute to the employment cycles in the shadow economy, which on the whole appears to increase duration spells in unemployment.

Suggested Citation

  • Christopher Bajada & Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Unemployment and the Shadow Economy in the oecd," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1033-1067.
  • Handle: RePEc:cai:recosp:reco_605_1033
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Christopher Bajada, 2003. "Business Cycle Properties of the Legitimate and Underground Economy in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(247), pages 397-411, December.
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    10. Christopher Bajada, 2005. "Unemployment and the underground economy in Australia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 177-189.
    11. Param Silvapulle & Mervyn J Silvapulle, 1997. "Business Cycle Asymmetry and the Stock Market," Working Papers 1997.22, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
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    14. James Peery Cover, 1992. "Asymmetric Effects of Positive and Negative Money-Supply Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1261-1282.
    15. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
    16. Francesco Busato & Bruno Chiarini, 2004. "Market and underground activities in a two-sector dynamic equilibrium model," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 23(4), pages 831-861, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "What explains prevalence of informal employment in European countries : the role of labor institutions, governance, immigrants, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5917, The World Bank.
    2. Feige, Edgar L., 2015. "Reflections on the meaning and measurement of Unobserved Economies: What do we really know about the “Shadow Economy”?," MPRA Paper 68466, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Schneider Friedrich, 2010. "The Influence of Public Institutions on the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation for OECD Countries," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(3), pages 441-468, December.
    4. Schneider, Friedrich, 2012. "The Shadow Economy and Work in the Shadow: What Do We (Not) Know?," IZA Discussion Papers 6423, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Lars P. Feld & Friedrich Schneider, 2011. "Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Work in OECD Countries," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Shadow Economy, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Amedeo Argentiero & Carlo Andrea BOLLINO, 2013. "The Mmeasurement of Underground Economy: A Dynamic-Simulation Based Approach," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 123/2013, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    7. Lars P. Feld & Friedrich Schneider, 2010. "Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Earnings in OECD Countries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11, pages 109-149, May.
    8. repec:spr:revint:v:13:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11558-018-9298-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Dasgupta, Manjira, 2017. "Moving towards "Cashlessness" in an emerging economy: A case study of latest policy steps in India," International Cash Conference 2017 – War on Cash: Is there a Future for Cash? 162907, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Schneider, Friedrich, 2014. "The Shadow Economy and Shadow Labor Force: A Survey of Recent Developments," IZA Discussion Papers 8278, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Awadh Ahmed Mohammed Gamal & Jauhari B.Dahalan, 2015. "Estimating the Size of the Underground Economy in Saudi: Evidence from Gregory-Hansen Cointegration Based Currency Demand Approach," Abstract of Economic, Finance and Management Outlook, Conscientia Beam, vol. 3, pages 1-6.
    12. Philippe Adair, 2012. "The Non-Observed Economy in the European Union Countries (EU-15): A Comparative Analysis of Estimates," Chapters,in: Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva & Carolina Silva Cassorla, 2015. "The shadow economy: a relevant factor for investment decisions in selected European Union countries," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 39(3), pages 305-323.
    14. Philippe Adair, 2017. "Non-Observed Economy vs. the Shadow Economy in the EU: The Accuracy of Measurements Methods and Estimates revisited," Post-Print hal-01683929, HAL.
    15. Manes, Eran & Schneider, Friedrich & Tchetchik, Anat, 2016. "On the Boundaries of the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation," IZA Discussion Papers 10067, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Friedrich Schneider, 2013. "Work in the Shadow: Some Facts," Economics working papers 2013-18, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    17. Amedeo Argentiero & Carlo Andrea Bollino, 2015. "Uncovering Unobserved Economy: A General Equilibrium Characterization," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 306-338, May.
    18. Markandya, Anil & González-Eguino, Mikel & Escapa, Marta, 2013. "From shadow to green: Linking environmental fiscal reforms and the informal economy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 108-118.
    19. Loayza, Norman V. & Rigolini, Jamele, 2011. "Informal Employment: Safety Net or Growth Engine?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1503-1515, September.
    20. Philippe Adair, 2009. "Économie non observée et emploi informel dans les pays de l'Union européenne. Une comparaison des estimations et des déterminants," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1117-1153.
    21. David Howden, 2011. "Europe’s Unemployment Crisis: Some Hidden Relief?," Chapters,in: Institutions in Crisis, chapter 4 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    22. Colin C. Williams & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Measuring the Global Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16551.

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