Total work and gender: facts and possible explanations
Time-diary data from 27 countries show a negative relationship between GDP per capita and gender differences in total work—for pay and at home. In rich non-Catholic countries men and women average about the same amount of total work. Survey results show scholars and the general public believe that women work more. Widespread average equality does not arise from gender differences in the price of time, intra-family bargaining or spousal complementarity. Several theories, including ones based on social norms, might explain these findings and are consistent with evidence from the World Values Surveys and microeconomic data from Australia and Germany.
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- Assar Lindbeck & Sten Nyberg & Jörgen W. Weibull, 1999.
"Social Norms and Economic Incentives in the Welfare State,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
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- George A. Akerlof, 1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of which Unemployment may be One Consequence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-775.
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