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Le Politiche per l'Occupazione in Europa: una Tassonomia Istituzionale

Le proposte di politiche per l'occupazione dell'Unione Europea sembrano in linea con la strategia individuata dall'OECD in occasione della pubblicazione del Jobs Study nel 1994. L'idea di fondo dell'OECD consensus e' che l'alta disoccupazione europea sia dovuta alle rigidita' delle norme e regole che operano nell'incontro tra domanda e offerta di lavoro e che sono responsabili sia dell'aumento della disoccupazione di equilibrio (strutturale) sia di fenomeni di persistenza (isteresi). L'implicazione di policy e che ciascun paese dovrebbe procedere ad una consistente riforma istituzionale che vada verso lo sviluppo della concorrenza nel mercato del lavoro. La nascita della moneta unica, con i connessi vincoli fiscali derivanti dal Patto di Stabilita' e Crescita e con la politica monetaria determinata dalla Banca Centrale Europea indipendente, il completamento del mercato unico e gli effetti della globalizzazione non lascerebbero altre alternative. L'evidenza empirica tuttavia, mentre da un lato sembra dimostrare un certo effetto delle rigidita' istituzionali sulla composizione della disoccupazione, non sembra invece fornire stime robuste sulla determinazione del livello della stessa. Inoltre, risulta altrettanto evidente che il mercato del lavoro europeo e' caratterizzato da una grande variabilita' degli assetti istituzionali, nelle caratteristiche dei mercati del lavoro locali e nelle strategie di policy adottate da ciascun paese, per cui risulta difficile pensare come unica soluzione del problema della disoccupazione il semplice ripristino della legge di mercato. Il capitalismo in genere, ed in particolare il mercato del lavoro, ammette una pluralita' di istituzioni le quali nascono e si formano secondo processi storico-politici idiosincratici; non esiste dunque un unica istituzione (il mercato) e un unico prezzo di equilibrio valido per tutti. Il problema diventa, quindi, la scelta dell'assetto istituzionale ottimale capace di guidare i cambiamenti dei processi produttivi in atto nel rispetto delle specificita' di ciascun paese.

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Paper provided by CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy in its series CELPE Discussion Papers with number 52.

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Date of creation: Mar 2000
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Handle: RePEc:sal:celpdp:52
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