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Hiring and Firing Costs, Adverse Selection and Long-term Unemployment

Author

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  • Kugler, Adriana

    () (Georgetown University)

  • Saint-Paul, Gilles

    () (Paris School of Economics)

Abstract

In this paper, we present a matching model with adverse selection that explains why flows into and out of unemployment are much lower in Europe compared to North America, while employment-to-employment flows are similar in the two continents. In the model, firms use discretion in terms of whom to fire and, thus, low quality workers are more likely to be dismissed than high quality workers. Moreover, as hiring and firing costs increase, firms find it more costly to hire a bad worker and, thus, they prefer to hire out of the pool of employed job seekers rather than out of the pool of the unemployed, who are more likely to turn out to be `lemons’. We use microdata for Spain and the U.S. and find that the ratio of the job finding probability of the unemployed to the job finding probability of employed job seekers was smaller in Spain than in the U.S.. Furthermore, using U.S. data, we find that the discrimination of the unemployed increased over the 1980’s in those states that raised firing costs by introducing exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine.

Suggested Citation

  • Kugler, Adriana & Saint-Paul, Gilles, 2000. "Hiring and Firing Costs, Adverse Selection and Long-term Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 134, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp134
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Schwarze, Johannes, 2000. "Using Panel Data on Income Satisfaction to Estimate the Equivalence Scale Elasticity," IZA Discussion Papers 224, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Guerrazzi, Marco, 2016. "Wage and employment determination in a dynamic insider-outsider model," MPRA Paper 74759, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Boeri, Tito & Jimeno, Juan F., 2005. "The effects of employment protection: Learning from variable enforcement," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(8), pages 2057-2077, November.
    4. Dennis Wesselbaum, 2014. "Firing tax vs severance payments – an unequal comparison," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 721-736, September.
    5. Chen Liang & Yili Hong & Bin Gu, 2017. "Home Bias in Global Employment," Working Papers 17-06, NET Institute.
    6. Agell, Jonas & Bennmarker, Helge, 2002. "Wage Policy and Endogenous Wage Rigidity: A Representative View from the Inside," Research Papers in Economics 2002:12, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
    7. Grund, Christian, 2000. "Wages as Risk Compensation in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 221, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Wesselbaum, Dennis, 2009. "Firing costs in a New Keynesian model with endogenous separations," Kiel Working Papers 1550, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    9. Ahrens, Steffen & Wesselbaum, Dennis, 2009. "On the introduction of firing costs," Kiel Working Papers 1559, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    10. Burgess, Simon & Turon, Hélène, 2010. "Worker flows, job flows and unemployment in a matching model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 393-408, April.
    11. Andrea De Michelis, 2004. "Sand in the wheels of the labor market: the effect of firing costs on employment," International Finance Discussion Papers 796, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Leonor Modesto, 2008. "Unions, Firing Costs, and Unemployment," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 22(3), pages 509-546, September.
    13. repec:sgh:gosnar:y:2017:i:3:p:29-53 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Mika Maliranta, 2004. "Hiring from unemployment and separation to unemployment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 91-95.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Adverse selection; turnover costs; unemployment; worker flows; matching models; discrimination;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts
    • J63 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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