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The Rise of the “Redback” and the People’s Republic of China’s Capital Account Liberalization: An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Invoicing Currencies

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  • Ito, Hiro

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

  • Chinn, Menzie

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

Abstract

This study investigates the determinants of currency choice for trade invoicing in a cross-country context while focusing on the link between capital account liberalization and its impact on the use of the renminbi (RMB). The authors find that while countries with more developed financial markets tend to invoice less in the US dollar, countries with more open capital accounts tend to invoice in either the euro or their home currency. These results indicate that financial development and financial openness are among the keys to challenging the US dollar dominance in general, and to internationalizing the RMB for the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The model also suggests that the share of the RMB in export invoicing should have been higher than the actually observed share of less than 10%. The underperformance of RMB export invoicing can be attributed to the inertia in the choice of currency for trade invoicing; once a currency is used for trade invoicing or settlements, it becomes difficult for traders to switch from one currency to another. This same phenomenon was also observed in the cases of the Japanese yen and the euro at their inceptions as international currencies. The model predicts that the share of RMB invoicing for the PRC’s exports will rise to above 25% in 2015 and above 30% in 2018, whether or not the PRC implements drastic financial liberalization. As the near future path of RMB use is also expected to be inertial, these forecasts are probably at the upper end of the actual path of RMB export invoicing.

Suggested Citation

  • Ito, Hiro & Chinn, Menzie, 2014. "The Rise of the “Redback” and the People’s Republic of China’s Capital Account Liberalization: An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Invoicing Currencies," ADBI Working Papers 473, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0473
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    File URL: http://www.adbi.org/files/2014.04.07.wp473.redback.prc.account.liberalization.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniela Marconi & Lorenzo Bencivelli & Anna Marra & Alessandro Schiavone & Raffaele Tartaglia-Polcini, 2016. "Offshore RMB markets in Europe: prospects for greater financial integration between Europe and China," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 334, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    2. Liu, Tao & Lu, Dong & Zhang, Ruifeng, 2017. "Currency choice in international trade: a new monetarist approach and firm-level evidence," MPRA Paper 79149, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Joseph E. Gagnon & Kent Troutman, 2014. "Internationalization of the Renminbi: The Role of Trade Settlement," Policy Briefs PB14-15, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    4. Shekhar Hari Kumar & Ila Patnaik, 2018. "Internationalisation of the Rupee," Working Papers id:12551, eSocialSciences.
    5. repec:bla:asiapr:v:12:y:2017:i:2:p:237-253 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Kumar, Shekhar Hari & Patnaik, Ila, 2018. "Internationalisation of the Rupee," Working Papers 18/222, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    7. McCauley, Robert N., 2015. "Does the US dollar confer an exorbitant privilege?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-14.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    RMB internationalization; capital account liberalization; US dollar; export invoicing; currency invoicing; settlement currency;

    JEL classification:

    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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