Invoicing Currency in International Trade: An Empirical Investigation and Some Implications for the Renminbi
To play the role of a unit of account, an international currency must be a currency widely used to invoice international trade. This paper investigates the determinants of the use of currency in trade invoicing and evaluates the potential of the renminbi for the denomination of cross-border transactions in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, we develop a simple model and establish the evidence showing that there is a convex relationship between the invoicing share of a currency and the economic size of its issuing country because of a coalescing effect and thick market externalities. We use the ratio of the foreign exchange turnover share of a currency to the global GDP share of its issuing country as a proxy for the size of thick market externalities, which we argue reflects capital account openness, financial development, and exchange rate stability of a country. This ratio is very small for the renminbi compared with that for established international currencies. Our quantitative analysis suggests that the renminbi can be a major invoicing currency in the region only if China sufficiently opens up its capital account and liberalizes its financial sector. We also draw a parallel between the renminbi and the euro and forecast the invoicing share of the renminbi in the Asia-Pacific region if the renminbi market attained the same degree of thickness as the euro.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2014|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 55th Floor , Two International Finance Centre , 8 Finance Street , Central, Hong Kong|
Phone: (852)2878 1978
Fax: (852)2878 7006
Web page: http://www.hkimr.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard Portes & Hélène Rey, 1998.
"The emergence of the euro as an international currency,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 13(26), pages 305-343, April.
- Alogoskoufis, G. & Portes, R. & Rey, H., 1997. "The Emergence of the Euro as an International Currency," DELTA Working Papers 97-28, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Richard Portes & Helene Rey, 1998. "The Emergence of the Euro as an International Currency," NBER Working Papers 6424, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- G Alogoskoufis & R Portes & H Rey, 1998. "The Emergence of the Euro as an International Currency," CEP Discussion Papers dp0388, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alogoskoufis, George & Portes, Richard & Rey, Hélène, 1997. "The Emergence of the Euro as an International Currency," CEPR Discussion Papers 1741, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Xiaoli Chen & Yin‐Wong Cheung, 2011. "Renminbi Going Global," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 19(2), pages 1-18, March.
- Cheung, Yin-Wong, 2011. "Renminbi Going Global," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt2qn810hg, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Xiaoli Chen & Yin-Wong Cheung, 2011. "Renminbi Going Global," Working Papers 082011, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Goldberg, Linda S. & Tille, Cédric, 2008. "Vehicle currency use in international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 177-192, December.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Cedric Tille, 2005. "Vehicle currency use in international trade," Staff Reports 200, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Cedric Tille, 2005. "Vehicle Currency Use in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 11127, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Friberg, Richard & Wilander, Fredrik, 2008. "The currency denomination of exports -- A questionnaire study," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 54-69, May.
- Barry, Eichengreen, 2011. "The renminbi as an international currency," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 723-730, September.
- Grassman, Sven, 1973. "A fundamental symmetry in international payment patterns," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 105-116, May.
- Hongyi Chen & Wensheng Peng & Chang Shu, 2009. "Renminbi as an International Currency: Potential and Policy Considerations," Working Papers 182009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)