IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/red/sed017/1001.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Lenders' Competition and Macro-prudential Regulation: A Model of the UK Mortgage Supermarket

Author

Listed:
  • Matteo Benetton

    (London School of Economics)

Abstract

This paper develops and estimates an empirical model of the UK mortgage market and studies the effect of macro-prudential regulation on lending activity. We estimate a discrete-continuous choice demand model of mortgages with a new administrative dataset of the universe of residential mortgage originations. Borrowers decide jointly the lender, the rate type and the leverage, facing a non-linear price schedule and affordability constraints on their choice sets. We find: 1) 10 basis points increase in the interest rate decreases the market share of a product by 6% on average; 2) a 1% increase in the interest rate decreases loan demand by about 4%; 3) both elasticities are heterogeneous across leverage levels, borrower types and lenders. We derive a pricing equation that takes into account default and refinancing risk and we characterise the Nash-Bertrand equilibrium, subject to risk-adjusted capital constraints. We use the estimated parameters to study the pass-through of capital requirements in two different counterfactual regimes.

Suggested Citation

  • Matteo Benetton, 2017. "Lenders' Competition and Macro-prudential Regulation: A Model of the UK Mortgage Supermarket," 2017 Meeting Papers 1001, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed017:1001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2017/paper_1001.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin Gaynor & Carol Propper & Stephan Seiler, 2012. "Free to Choose? Reform and Demand Response in the English National Health Service," CEP Discussion Papers dp1179, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    2. John Y. Campbell & João F. Cocco, 2003. "Household Risk Management and Optimal Mortgage Choice," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1449-1494.
    3. Itamar Drechsler & Alexi Savov & Philipp Schnabl, 2017. "The Deposits Channel of Monetary Policy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(4), pages 1819-1876.
    4. Jason Allen & Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde, 2014. "Price Dispersion in Mortgage Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 377-416, September.
    5. Eckley, Peter & Benetton, Matteo & Latsi, Georgia & Garbarino, Nicola & Kirwin, Liam, 2017. "Specialisation in mortgage risk under Basel II," Bank of England working papers 639, Bank of England.
    6. Gregory S. Crawford & Nicola Pavanini & Fabiano Schivardi, 2018. "Asymmetric Information and Imperfect Competition in Lending Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(7), pages 1659-1701, July.
    7. Badarinza, Cristian & Campbell, John Y & Ramadorai, Tarun, 2014. "What Calls to ARMs? International Evidence on Interest Rates and the Choice of Adjustable Rate Mortgages," CEPR Discussion Papers 10117, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. John Y. Campbell, 2013. "Mortgage Market Design," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 17(1), pages 1-33.
    9. John Y. Campbell & João F. Cocco, 2015. "A Model of Mortgage Default," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 70(4), pages 1495-1554, August.
    10. Becker, Bo, 2007. "Geographical segmentation of US capital markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 151-178, July.
    11. Alejandro Justiniano & Giorgio E. Primiceri & Andrea Tambalotti, 2019. "Credit Supply and the Housing Boom," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 127(3), pages 1317-1350.
    12. Christoph Basten & Catherine Koch, 2014. "Higher bank capital requirements and mortgage pricing: evidence from the Counter-Cyclical Capital Buffer," ECON - Working Papers 169, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
    13. Ralph S. J. Koijen & Motohiro Yogo, 2016. "Shadow Insurance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 1265-1287, May.
    14. Markus Behn & Rainer Haselmann & Paul Wachtel, 2016. "Procyclical Capital Regulation and Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 71(2), pages 919-956, April.
    15. Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou, 1995. "Product Differentiation and Oligopoly in International Markets: The Case of the U.S. Automobile Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 891-951, July.
    16. Daniel Greenwald, 2016. "The Mortgage Credit Channel of Macroeconomic Transmission," 2016 Meeting Papers 1551, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    17. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2004. "Competition and financial stability," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 453-486.
    18. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
    19. Valentina Michelangeli & Enrico Sette, 2016. "How does bank capital affect the supply of mortgages? Evidence from a randomized experiment," BIS Working Papers 557, Bank for International Settlements.
    20. Anat Admati & Martin Hellwig, 2014. "The Bankers' New Clothes: What's Wrong with Banking and What to Do about It: with a new preface by the authors," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10230.
    21. Train,Kenneth E., 2009. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521766555.
    22. Øyvind Thomassen & Howard Smith & Stephan Seiler & Pasquale Schiraldi, 2017. "Multi-category Competition and Market Power: A Model of Supermarket Pricing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(8), pages 2308-2351, August.
    23. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2008. "Microeconomics of Banking, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262062704.
    24. repec:hrv:faseco:30758219 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Greg M. Allenby & Thomas S. Shively & Sha Yang & Mark J. Garratt, 2004. "A Choice Model for Packaged Goods: Dealing with Discrete Quantities and Quantity Discounts," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(1), pages 95-108, June.
    26. Yongheng Deng & John M. Quigley & Robert Van Order, 2000. "Mortgage Terminations, Heterogeneity and the Exercise of Mortgage Options," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(2), pages 275-308, March.
    27. Anthony A. DeFusco & Andrew Paciorek, 2017. "The Interest Rate Elasticity of Mortgage Demand: Evidence from Bunching at the Conforming Loan Limit," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 210-240, February.
    28. Javier Andrés & Oscar Arce, 2012. "Banking Competition, Housing Prices and Macroeconomic Stability," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(565), pages 1346-1372, December.
    29. de Ramon, Sebastian & Francis, William & Milonas, Kristoffer, 2017. "An overview of the UK banking sector since the Basel Accord: insights from a new regulatory database," Bank of England working papers 652, Bank of England.
    30. Dubin, Jeffrey A & McFadden, Daniel L, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Residential Electric Appliance Holdings and Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 345-362, March.
    31. Acharya, Viral & Engle, Robert & Pierret, Diane, 2014. "Testing macroprudential stress tests: The risk of regulatory risk weights," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 36-53.
    32. Basten, Christhoph & Koch, Cathérine, 2015. "Higher Bank Capital Requirements and Mortgage Pricing: Evidence from the Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCB)," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 26, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    33. Xavier Vives, 2011. "Competition and Stability in Banking," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Luis Felipe Céspedes & Roberto Chang & Diego Saravia (ed.), Monetary Policy under Financial Turbulence, edition 1, volume 16, chapter 12, pages 455-502, Central Bank of Chile.
    34. Jean-Pierre Dubé, 2004. "Multiple Discreteness and Product Differentiation: Demand for Carbonated Soft Drinks," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(1), pages 66-81, September.
    35. Harimohan, Rashmi & McLeay, Michael & Young, Garry, 2016. "Pass-through of bank funding costs to lending and deposit rates: lessons from the financial crisis," Bank of England working papers 590, Bank of England.
    36. Morgan J. Rose, 2013. "Geographic Variation in Subprime Loan Features, Foreclosures, and Prepayments," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 563-590, May.
    37. repec:wly:emetrp:v:85:y:2017:i:6:p:1723-1761 is not listed on IDEAS
    38. Schwartz, Eduardo S & Torous, Walter N, 1989. " Prepayment and the Valuation of Mortgage-Backed Securities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 375-392, June.
    39. Clerc, L. & Nikolov, K. & Derviz, A. & Stracca, L. & Mendicino, C. & Suarez, J. & Moyen, S. & Vardoulakis, A., 2014. "Macroprudential capital tools: assessing their rationale and effectiveness," Financial Stability Review, Banque de France, issue 18, pages 183-194, April.
    40. Andreas Fuster & Basit Zafar, 2014. "The sensitivity of housing demand to financing conditions: evidence from a survey," Staff Reports 702, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Aug 2015.
    41. Igal Hendel, 1999. "Estimating Multiple-Discrete Choice Models: An Application to Computerization Returns," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(2), pages 423-446.
    42. Best, Michael Carlos & Cloyne, James & Ilzetzki, Ethan & Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen, 2015. "Interest rates, debt and intertemporal allocation: evidence from notched mortgage contracts in the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 543, Bank of England.
    43. Brueckner, Jan K., 1994. "The Demand for Mortgage Debt: Some Basic Results," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 251-262, December.
    44. Justine Hastings & Ali Hortaçsu & Chad Syverson, 2017. "Sales Force and Competition in Financial Product Markets: The Case of Mexico's Social Security Privatization," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 85(6), pages 1723-1761, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:red:sed017:1001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Zimmermann). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/sedddea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.