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Unit Roots, Level Shifts and Trend Breaks in Per Capita Output: A Robust Evaluation

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  • Mohitosh Kejriwal
  • Claude Lopez

Abstract

Determining whether per capita output can be characterized by a stochastic trend is complicated by the fact that infrequent breaks in trend can bias standard unit root tests towards non-rejection of the unit root hypothesis. The bulk of the existing literature has focused on the application of unit root tests allowing for structural breaks in the trend function under the trend stationary alternative but not under the unit root null. These tests, however, provide little information regarding the existence and number of trend breaks. Moreover, these tests su¤er from serious power and size distortions due to the asymmetric treatment of breaks under the null and alternative hypotheses. This paper estimates the number of breaks in trend employing procedures that are robust to the unit root/stationarity properties of the data. Our analysis of the per-capita GDP for OECD countries thereby permits a robust classi?cation of countries according to the ?growth shift?, ?level shift? and ?linear trend? hypotheses. In contrast to the extant literature, unit root tests conditional on the presence or absence of breaks do not provide evidence against the unit root hypothesis.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohitosh Kejriwal & Claude Lopez, 2009. "Unit Roots, Level Shifts and Trend Breaks in Per Capita Output: A Robust Evaluation," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1227, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pur:prukra:1227
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    Cited by:

    1. Matteo Mogliani, 2010. "Residual-based tests for cointegration and multiple deterministic structural breaks: A Monte Carlo study," PSE Working Papers halshs-00564897, HAL.
    2. Lyócsa, Štefan & Výrost, Tomáš & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2011. "Unit-root and stationarity testing with empirical application on industrial production of CEE-4 countries," MPRA Paper 29648, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Nuno Sobreira & Luís Catela Nunes & Paulo M.M. Rodrigues, 2013. "Characterizing economic growth paths based on new structural change tests," Working Papers w201313, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    4. Mohitosh Kejriwal & Pierre Perron, 2009. "A Sequential Procedure to Determine the Number of Breaks in Trend with an Integrated or Stationary Noise Component," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series wp2009-005, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    5. Bataa, Erdenebat & Izzeldin, Marwan & Osborn, Denise R., 2016. "Changes in the global oil market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, pages 161-176.
    6. Nuno Sobreira & Luis C. Nunes & Paulo M. M. Rodrigues, 2014. "Characterizing Economic Growth Paths Based On New Structural Change Tests," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(2), pages 845-861, April.
    7. Bataa, Erdenebat & Wohar, Mark & Vivian, Andrew, 2015. "Changes in the relationship between short-term interest rate, inflation and growth: Evidence from the UK, 1820-2014," MPRA Paper 72422, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Presno, María José & Landajo, Manuel & Fernández, Paula, 2012. "Non-renewable resource prices. A robust evaluation from the stationarity perspective," MPRA Paper 42523, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Liddle, Brantley & Messinis, George, 2015. "Revisiting sulfur Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: Substantial evidence of inverted-Us/Vs for individual OECD countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 278-285.
    10. Fabien CANDAU & Serge REY & Jean-François HOARAU & Michaël GOUJON, 2013. "Real exchange rate and competitiveness of an EU’s ultra-peripheral region: La Reunion Island," Working Papers 2013-2014_6, CATT - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, revised Oct 2013.
    11. Liddle, Brantley & Messinis, George, 2014. "Revisiting carbon Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: Evidence of decoupling and saturation (but few inverted-Us) for individual OECD countries," MPRA Paper 59566, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Ghoshray Atanu & Kejriwal Mohitosh & Wohar Mark, 2014. "Breaks, trends and unit roots in commodity prices: a robust investigation," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 18(1), pages 23-40, February.
    13. Mohitosh Kejriwal & Pierre Perron, 2009. "A Sequential Procedure to Determine the Number of Breaks in Trend with an Integrated or Stationary Noise Component," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1217, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
    14. repec:kap:iecepo:v:14:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10368-016-0355-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Mohitosh Kejriwal & Pierre Perron, 2010. "A sequential procedure to determine the number of breaks in trend with an integrated or stationary noise component," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 305-328, September.
    16. Presno, María José & Landajo, Manuel & Fernández, Paula, 2014. "Non-renewable resource prices: A robust evaluation from the stationarity perspective," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 394-416.
    17. Sobreira, Nuno & Nunesz, Luis C. & Rodriguesz, Paulo M. M., 2012. "Neoclassical, semi-endogenous or endogenous growth theory? Evidence based on new structural change tests," Insper Working Papers wpe_291, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    growth shift; level shift; structural change; trend breaks; unit root;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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