IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/69821.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Performance of microfinance institutions in achieving the poverty outreach and financial sustainability: When age and size matter?

Author

Listed:
  • Wijesiri, Mahinda
  • Yaron, Jacob
  • Meoli, Michele

Abstract

Using a two-stage DEA bootstrapped metafrontier approach, we investigate the effects of age and size on efficiency estimates of microfinance institutions (MFIs). In the first-stage, we use a metafrontier model combining with DEA bootstrapped procedure to obtain statistically robust and comparable efficiencies. In the second-stage, we employ a bootstrapped truncated regression to account for the impact of exogenous factors on both dimensions of efficiency. Results highlight the importance of model specification for MFIs operating in different geographical regions. Moreover, we find that although older MFIs perform better than younger ones in terms of achieving financial results, they are relatively inefficient in achieving outreach objectives. We also document that MFI size matters: larger MFIs tend to have higher financial and outreach efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Wijesiri, Mahinda & Yaron, Jacob & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Performance of microfinance institutions in achieving the poverty outreach and financial sustainability: When age and size matter?," MPRA Paper 69821, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:69821
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/69821/1/MPRA_paper_69821.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Joanna Ledgerwood & Victoria White, 2006. "Transforming Microfinance Institutions : Providing Full Financial Services to the Poor," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7086.
    2. Leopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "A general methodology for bootstrapping in non-parametric frontier models," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(6), pages 779-802.
    3. Steven B. Caudill & Daniel M. Gropper & Valentina Hartarska, 2009. "Which Microfinance Institutions Are Becoming More Cost Effective with Time? Evidence from a Mixture Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 651-672, June.
    4. Hudon, Marek & Traca, Daniel, 2011. "On the Efficiency Effects of Subsidies in Microfinance: An Empirical Inquiry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 966-973, June.
    5. Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2015. "Efficiency dynamics in Indian banking: A conditional directional distance approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(3), pages 807-818.
    6. Nhung, Lai Thi Phuong & Okuda, Hidenobu, 2015. "Effects of state ownership on companies’ capital structure and profitability: Estimation analysis before and after the Lehman shock," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 64-78.
    7. Ahlin, Christian & Lin, Jocelyn & Maio, Michael, 2011. "Where does microfinance flourish? Microfinance institution performance in macroeconomic context," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 105-120, July.
    8. Isabelle Piot-Lepetit & Joseph Nzongang, 2014. "Financial sustainability and poverty outreach within a network of village banks in Cameroon: A multi DEA approach," Post-Print hal-02639487, HAL.
    9. Gregoriou, Greg N. & Sedzro, Komlan & Zhu, Joe, 2005. "Hedge fund performance appraisal using data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 164(2), pages 555-571, July.
    10. Mitropoulos, Panagiotis & Talias, Μichael A. & Mitropoulos, Ioannis, 2015. "Combining stochastic DEA with Bayesian analysis to obtain statistical properties of the efficiency scores: An application to Greek public hospitals," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 243(1), pages 302-311.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia, 2006. "Capital structure and firm performance: A new approach to testing agency theory and an application to the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1065-1102, April.
    12. Hartarska, Valentina, 2005. "Governance and performance of microfinance institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1627-1643, October.
    13. Mersland, Roy & Strøm, R. Øystein, 2010. "Microfinance Mission Drift?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 28-36, January.
    14. Julia Paxton, 2003. "A poverty outreach index and its application to microfinance," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 9(2), pages 1-10.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    16. Mark Schreiner, 2002. "Aspects of outreach: a framework for discussion of the social benefits of microfinance," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 591-603.
    17. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    18. Cull, Robert & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Morduch, Jonathan, 2011. "Does Regulatory Supervision Curtail Microfinance Profitability and Outreach?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 949-965, June.
    19. Jonathan Morduch, 1999. "The Microfinance Promise," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1569-1614, December.
    20. Maxime LEBOVICS & Niels HERMES & Marek HUDON, 2016. "Are Financial And Social Efficiency Mutually Exclusive? A Case Study Of Vietnamese Microfinance Institutions," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(1), pages 55-77, December.
    21. Widiarto, Indra & Emrouznejad, Ali, 2015. "Social and financial efficiency of Islamic microfinance institutions: A Data Envelopment Analysis application," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-17.
    22. Christopher O’Donnell & D. Rao & George Battese, 2008. "Metafrontier frameworks for the study of firm-level efficiencies and technology ratios," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 231-255, March.
    23. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
    24. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert & Meesters, Aljar, 2011. "Outreach and Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 938-948, June.
    25. Gashaw Tadesse Abate & Carlo Borzaga & Kindie Getnet, 2014. "Cost‐Efficiency And Outreach Of Microfinance Institutions: Trade‐Offs And The Role Of Ownership," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(6), pages 923-932, August.
    26. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998. "Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
    27. Paradi, Joseph C. & Zhu, Haiyan, 2013. "A survey on bank branch efficiency and performance research with data envelopment analysis," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 61-79.
    28. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    29. W. Cooper & Shanling Li & L. Seiford & Kaoru Tone & R. Thrall & J. Zhu, 2001. "Sensitivity and Stability Analysis in DEA: Some Recent Developments," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 217-246, May.
    30. Robert Cull & Asli Demirguç-Kunt & Jonathan Morduch, 2007. "Financial performance and outreach: a global analysis of leading microbanks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages 107-133, February.
    31. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2002. "Non-parametric tests of returns to scale," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 139(1), pages 115-132, May.
    32. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:9:y:2003:i:2:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Julia Paxton, 2007. "Technical Efficiency in a Semi‐Formal Financial Sector: The Case of Mexico," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 57-74, February.
    34. Staub, Roberta B. & da Silva e Souza, Geraldo & Tabak, Benjamin M., 2010. "Evolution of bank efficiency in Brazil: A DEA approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 202(1), pages 204-213, April.
    35. Barry, Thierno Amadou & Tacneng, Ruth, 2014. "The Impact of Governance and Institutional Quality on MFI Outreach and Financial Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1-20.
    36. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2000. "Why do Banks Disappear? The Determinants of U.S. Bank Failures and Acquisitions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 127-138, February.
    37. Barros, Carlos Pestana, 2008. "Airports in Argentina: Technical efficiency in the context of an economic crisis," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 315-319.
    38. Lawrence M. Seiford & Joe Zhu, 1999. "Profitability and Marketability of the Top 55 U.S. Commercial Banks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(9), pages 1270-1288, September.
    39. Edirisinghe, N.C.P. & Zhang, X., 2010. "Input/output selection in DEA under expert information, with application to financial markets," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(3), pages 1669-1678, December.
    40. B. Golany & J. E. Storbeck, 1999. "A Data Envelopment Analysis of the Operational Efficiency of Bank Branches," Interfaces, INFORMS, vol. 29(3), pages 14-26, June.
    41. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Productivity change of microfinance institutions in Kenya: A bootstrap Malmquist approach," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 115-121.
    42. Galema, Rients & Lensink, Robert & Spierdijk, Laura, 2011. "International diversification and Microfinance," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 507-515, April.
    43. Louis, Philippe & Seret, Alex & Baesens, Bart, 2013. "Financial Efficiency and Social Impact of Microfinance Institutions Using Self-Organizing Maps," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 197-210.
    44. Seiford, Lawrence M. & Zhu, Joe, 1999. "An investigation of returns to scale in data envelopment analysis," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-11, February.
    45. Athanassopoulos, Antreas D., 1997. "Service quality and operating efficiency synergies for management control in the provision of financial services: Evidence from Greek bank branches," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 300-313, April.
    46. Fallah-Fini, Saeideh & Triantis, Konstantinos & de la Garza, Jesus M. & Seaver, William L., 2012. "Measuring the efficiency of highway maintenance contracting strategies: A bootstrapped non-parametric meta-frontier approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 219(1), pages 134-145.
    47. Piot-Lepetit, Isabelle & Nzongang, Joseph, 2014. "Financial sustainability and poverty outreach within a network of village banks in Cameroon: A multi-DEA approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 319-330.
    48. Golany, B & Roll, Y, 1989. "An application procedure for DEA," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 237-250.
    49. Hartarska, Valentina M., 2005. "Governance and Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24568, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    50. Valentina Hartarska & Denis Nadolnyak, 2007. "Do regulated microfinance institutions achieve better sustainability and outreach? Cross-country evidence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(10), pages 1207-1222.
    51. Yaron, Jacob, 1994. "What Makes Rural Finance Institutions Successful?," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 9(1), pages 49-70, January.
    52. Marguerite S. Robinson, 2001. "The Microfinance Revolution," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 28956.
    53. Lawrence Seiford & Joe Zhu, 1999. "Sensitivity and Stability of the Classifications of Returns to Scale in Data Envelopment Analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 55-75, August.
    54. D’Espallier, Bert & Hudon, Marek & Szafarz, Ariane, 2013. "Unsubsidized microfinance institutions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 174-176.
    55. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
    56. Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "FEAR: A software package for frontier efficiency analysis with R," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 247-254, December.
    57. Ahmad Nawaz, 2010. "Performance of Microfinance: The Role of Subsidies," Working Papers CEB 10-008.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    58. R G Dyson & E A Shale, 2010. "Data envelopment analysis, operational research and uncertainty," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 61(1), pages 25-34, January.
    59. Barros, Carlos Pestana & Dieke, Peter U.C., 2008. "Measuring the economic efficiency of airports: A Simar-Wilson methodology analysis," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(6), pages 1039-1051, November.
    60. Mester, Loretta J., 1996. "A study of bank efficiency taking into account risk-preferences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1025-1045, July.
    61. Servin, Roselia & Lensink, Robert & van den Berg, Marrit, 2012. "Ownership and technical efficiency of microfinance institutions: Empirical evidence from Latin America," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2136-2144.
    62. Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña & Serrano-Cinca, Carlos & Mar Molinero, Cecilio, 2007. "Microfinance institutions and efficiency," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 131-142, April.
    63. Song, Ma-Lin & Zhang, Lin-Ling & Liu, Wei & Fisher, Ron, 2013. "Bootstrap-DEA analysis of BRICS’ energy efficiency based on small sample data," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 1049-1055.
    64. Francisco, Manuela & Mascaro, Yira & Mendoza, Juan Carlos & Yaron, Jacob, 2008. "Measuring the performance and achievement of social objectives of development finance institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4506, The World Bank.
    65. George Battese & D. Rao & Christopher O'Donnell, 2004. "A Metafrontier Production Function for Estimation of Technical Efficiencies and Technology Gaps for Firms Operating Under Different Technologies," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 91-103, January.
    66. Timothy J. Coelli & D.S. Prasada Rao & Christopher J. O’Donnell & George E. Battese, 2005. "An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis," Springer Books, Springer, edition 0, number 978-0-387-25895-9, October.
    67. Dietsch, Michel & Lozano-Vivas, Ana, 2000. "How the environment determines banking efficiency: A comparison between French and Spanish industries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 985-1004, June.
    68. Paradi, Joseph C. & Rouatt, Stephen & Zhu, Haiyan, 2011. "Two-stage evaluation of bank branch efficiency using data envelopment analysis," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 99-109, January.
    69. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
    70. Joanna Ledgerwood, 1998. "Microfinance Handbook: An Institutional and Financial Perspective," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 12383.
    71. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert, 2011. "Microfinance: Its Impact, Outreach, and Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 875-881, June.
    72. Conning, Jonathan, 1999. "Outreach, sustainability and leverage in monitored and peer-monitored lending," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 51-77, October.
    73. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Viganò, Laura & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Efficiency of microfinance institutions in Sri Lanka: a two-stage double bootstrap DEA approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 74-83.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wijesiri, Mahinda, 2016. "Weathering the storm: ownership structure and performance of microfinance institutions in the wake of the global financial crisis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 238-247.
    2. Patrick Van Damme & Mahinda Wijesiri & Michele Meoli, 2016. "Governance and Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," South Asia Economic Journal, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, vol. 17(2), pages 236-247, September.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Yaron, Jacob & Meoli, Michele, 2017. "Assessing the financial and outreach efficiency of microfinance institutions: Do age and size matter?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 63-76.
    2. Niels Hermes & Marek Hudon, 2018. "Determinants Of The Performance Of Microfinance Institutions: A Systematic Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5), pages 1483-1513, December.
    3. Hermes, Cornelis & Hudon, M., 2018. "Determinants of the Performance of Microfinance Institutions: A Systematic Review," Research Report 2018008, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    4. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Viganò, Laura & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Efficiency of microfinance institutions in Sri Lanka: a two-stage double bootstrap DEA approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 74-83.
    5. Fall, François & Akim, Al-mouksit & Wassongma, Harouna, 2018. "DEA and SFA research on the efficiency of microfinance institutions: A meta-analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 176-188.
    6. Delaram Najmaei Lonbani & Bram De Rock, 2020. "The performance of microfinance institutions: An analysis of the local and legal constraints," Working Papers CEB 20-011, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. Wijesiri, Mahinda, 2016. "Weathering the storm: ownership structure and performance of microfinance institutions in the wake of the global financial crisis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 238-247.
    8. Li, Lin Yang & Hermes, Niels & Meesters, Aljar, 2019. "Convergence of the performance of microfinance institutions: A decomposition analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-324.
    9. Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña & Serrano-Cinca, Carlos, 2019. "20 years of research in microfinance: An information management approach," International Journal of Information Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 183-197.
    10. Widiarto, Indra & Emrouznejad, Ali, 2015. "Social and financial efficiency of Islamic microfinance institutions: A Data Envelopment Analysis application," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-17.
    11. Simon Cornée & Gervais Thenet, 2016. "Efficience des institutions de microfinance en Bolivie et au Pérou:une approche data envelopment analysis en deux étapes," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 19(1), pages 65-91, March.
    12. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Productivity change of microfinance institutions in Kenya: A bootstrap Malmquist approach," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 115-121.
    13. Md Aslam Mia & Lucia Dalla Pellegrina & Patrick Damme & Mahinda Wijesiri, 2019. "Financial Inclusion, Deepening and Efficiency in Microfinance Programs: Evidence from Bangladesh," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 31(4), pages 809-835, September.
    14. Swati Chauhan, 2021. "Social and Financial Efficiency: A Study of Indian Microfinance Institutions," IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review, , vol. 10(1), pages 31-43, January.
    15. Simon Zaby, 2019. "Science Mapping of the Global Knowledge Base on Microfinance: Influential Authors and Documents, 1989–2019," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(14), pages 1-21, July.
    16. Maxime LEBOVICS & Niels HERMES & Marek HUDON, 2016. "Are Financial And Social Efficiency Mutually Exclusive? A Case Study Of Vietnamese Microfinance Institutions," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(1), pages 55-77, December.
    17. Patrick Reichert, 2018. "A meta-analysis examining the nature of trade-offs in microfinance," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 430-452, July.
    18. Patrick Reichert, 2018. "A meta-analysis examining the nature of trade-offs in microfinance," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 430-452, July.
    19. Patrick Van Damme & Mahinda Wijesiri & Michele Meoli, 2016. "Governance and Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," South Asia Economic Journal, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, vol. 17(2), pages 236-247, September.
    20. Ayi Gavriel Ayayi & Mahinda Wijesiri, 2018. "Better with age? The relationship between longevity and efficiency dynamics of nonprofit microfinance institutions," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 52(5), pages 2331-2343, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Data envelopment analysis; Metafrontier; Bootstrap; Efficiency; Microfinance;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C18 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Methodolical Issues: General
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:69821. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.