Commute Costs and Labor Supply: Evidence from a Satellite Campus
Whether, and how much, increased commute costs decrease labor supply is important for transport policy, city growth, and business strategies. Yet empirical estimates are limited and biased downward due to endogenous choices of residences, workplaces, commute modes, and wages. We use the transition of undergraduate teaching from a Chinese university’s urban to suburban campus and ten years of complete course schedule data to test how teachers’ labor supply responds to a longer commute. Exogeneity is ensured because few faculty change residences, nearly all faculty ride a free shuttle bus, and we control for wage changes. Employing a regression discontinuity design, the 1.0 to 1.5-hour (40-kilometer) increase in round-trip commute time reduces annual undergraduate teaching by 56 hours or 23%. Consistent with higher per-day commute costs annual teaching days decrease by 27 while daily teaching hours increase by 0.49. Difference-in-difference estimates using faculty-specific changes in commute time corroborate these results ruling out aggregate confounders. Faculty substitute toward graduate teaching but decrease research output. The university accommodated the reduced teaching time primarily by increasing class sizes implying that education quality declined.
|Date of creation:||17 Feb 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001.
"Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City,"
NBER Working Papers
8117, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001. "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1912, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- White, Michelle J, 1986. "Sex Differences in Urban Commuting Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 368-72, May.
- Timothy, Darren & Wheaton, William C., 2001. "Intra-Urban Wage Variation, Employment Location, and Commuting Times," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 338-366, September.
- Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva & van Ommeren, Jos, 2010.
"Labour Supply and Commuting,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4798, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Eva Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau & Jos van Ommeren, 2009. "Labour Supply and Commuting," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 222, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Alan Manning, 2003.
"The Real Thin Theory: Monopsony in Modern Labour Markets,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0564, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Manning, Alan, 2003. "The real thin theory: monopsony in modern labour markets," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 105-131, April.
- Alan Manning, 2003. "The real thin theory: monopsony in modern labour markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20050, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2009.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs In Economics,"
1118, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Enrico Moretti & Per Thulin, 2013. "Local multipliers and human capital in the United States and Sweden," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 339-362, February.
- Giacomo De Giorgi & Michele Pellizzari & William Gui Woolston, 2010.
"Class Size and Class Heterogeneity,"
NBER Working Papers
16405, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shihe Fu & Stephen Ross, 2010.
"Wage Premia in Employment Clusters: How Important is Worker Heterogeneity?,"
2011-027, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
- Shihe Fu & Stephen L. Ross, 2013. "Wage Premia in Employment Clusters: How Important Is Worker Heterogeneity?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 271 - 304.
- Parry, Ian W.H. & Bento, Antonio Miguel R., 1999.
"Revenue recycling and the welfare effects of road pricing,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2253, The World Bank.
- Parry, Ian W H & Bento, Antonio, 2001. " Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 103(4), pages 645-71, December.
- Parry, Ian & Bento, Antonio, 1999. "Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing," Discussion Papers dp-99-45, Resources For the Future.
- Cogan, John F, 1981. "Fixed Costs and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 945-63, June.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2005.
"Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980-2000,"
NBER Working Papers
11230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2007. "Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980–2000," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25, pages 393-438.
- Blau, Francine D. & Kahn, Lawrence M., 2006. "Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980-2000," IZA Discussion Papers 2180, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- J J Arias & Douglas M. Walker, 2004. "Additional Evidence on the Relationship between Class Size and Student Performance," The Journal of Economic Education, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 311-329, October.
- Marcy Burchfield & Henry G. Overman & Diego Puga & Matthew A. Turner, 2005.
"Causes of sprawl: A portrait from space,"
tecipa-192, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-79, March.
- Michael Kremer & Nazmul Chaudhury & F. Halsey Rogers & Karthik Muralidharan & Jeffrey Hammer, 2005. "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 658-667, 04/05.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008. "Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Working Papers 13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marie Connolly, 2008. "Here Comes the Rain Again: Weather and the Intertemporal Substitution of Leisure," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26, pages 73-100.
- Zax, Jeffrey S & Kain, John F, 1996.
"Moving to the Suburbs: Do Relocating Companies Leave Their Black Employees Behind?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 472-504, July.
- Zax, J.S. & Kain, J.F., 1991. "Moving to the Suburbs: Do Relocating Companies Leave Their Black Employees Behind?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1562, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Inge Mayeres & Stef Proost, 1998.
"Marginal Tax Reform, Externalities and Income Distribution,"
Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers
ces9832, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
- Mayeres, Inge & Proost, Stef, 2001. "Marginal tax reform, externalities and income distribution," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 343-363, February.
- repec:dgr:uvatin:20090014 is not listed on IDEAS
- Viard, Brian & Fu, Shihe, 2011. "The effect of Beijing’s driving restrictions on pollution and economic activity," MPRA Paper 33009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Zax, Jeffrey S, 1991. "The Substitution between Moves and Quits," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1510-21, November.
- Richard Arnott & Tilmann Rave & Ronnie Schöb, 2005. "Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012197, June.
- Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
- Black, Dan A. & Kolesnikova, Natalia & Taylor, Lowell J., 2014. "Why do so few women work in New York (and so many in Minneapolis)? Labor supply of married women across US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 59-71.
- White, Michelle J., 1988. "Location choice and commuting behavior in cities with decentralized employment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 129-152, September.
- Hymel, Kent, 2009. "Does traffic congestion reduce employment growth?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 127-135, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:53740. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.