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Why do so few women work in New York (and so many in Minneapolis)? Labor supply of married women across US cities

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  • Black, Dan A.
  • Kolesnikova, Natalia
  • Taylor, Lowell J.

Abstract

This paper documents a little-noticed feature of US labor markets—very large variation in the labor supply of married women across cities. We focus on cross-city differences in commuting times as a potential explanation for this variation. We start with a model in which commuting times introduce non-convexities into the budget set. Empirical evidence is consistent with the model’s predictions: Labor force participation rates of married women are negatively correlated with the metropolitan area commuting time. Also, metropolitan areas with larger increases in average commuting time in 1980–2000 had slower growth in the labor force participation of married women.

Suggested Citation

  • Black, Dan A. & Kolesnikova, Natalia & Taylor, Lowell J., 2014. "Why do so few women work in New York (and so many in Minneapolis)? Labor supply of married women across US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 59-71.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:79:y:2014:i:c:p:59-71
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jue.2013.03.003
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    Cited by:

    1. Mota, Nuno & Patacchini, Eleonora & Rosenthal, Stuart S., 2016. "Neighborhood Effects, Peer Classification, and the Decision of Women to Work," IZA Discussion Papers 9985, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Viard, V. Brian & Fu, Shihe, 2015. "The effect of Beijing's driving restrictions on pollution and economic activity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 98-115.
    3. Day, Creina & Guest, Ross, 2016. "Fertility and female wages: A new link via house prices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 121-132.
    4. Leonardo Fabio Morales & Lina Cardona-Sosa, 2015. "Calidad de los vecindarios y oferta laboral femenina en un contexto urbano: un caso aplicado a la ciudad de Medellín," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 012588, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    5. Kumar, Anil & Liang, Che-Yung, 2015. "Declining female labor supply elasticities in the U.S. and implications for tax policy: evidence from panel data," Working Papers 1501, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    6. Fu, Shihe & Viard, Brian, 2014. "Commute Costs and Labor Supply: Evidence from a Satellite Campus," MPRA Paper 53740, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Mizuki Kawabata & Yukiko Abe, 2016. "Spatial dimensions of intra-metropolitan disparities in commuting time and female labor force participation," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2016-024, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    8. Fesselmeyer, Eric & Liu, Haoming, 2016. "How Do Users Value a Network Expansion? Evidence from the Public Transit System in Singapore," IZA Discussion Papers 10142, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Stockton, Isabel & Bergemann, Annette & Brunow, Stephan, 2016. "There And Back Again: Women's Marginal Commuting Costs," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145919, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. repec:eee:juecon:v:99:y:2017:i:c:p:120-135 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Beck, Matthew J. & Hess, Stephane, 2016. "Willingness to accept longer commutes for better salaries: Understanding the differences within and between couples," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 1-16.
    12. Abe, Yukiko, 2016. "On the convergence in female participation rates," Discussion paper series. A 301, Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration, Hokkaido University.
    13. Johnson, William R., 2014. "House prices and female labor force participation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 1-11.
    14. Hirsch, Barry & Husain, Muhammad M. & Winters, John V., 2016. "The Puzzling Fixity of Multiple Job Holding across Regions and Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 9631, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Melanie Guldi & Lucie Schmidt, 2017. "Taxes, Transfers, and Women’s Labor Supply in the United States," Working Papers 2017-01, University of Central Florida, Department of Economics.
    16. Yukiko Abe, 2016. "On the convergence in female participation rates," ERSA conference papers ersa16p473, European Regional Science Association.
    17. repec:eee:regeco:v:68:y:2018:i:c:p:291-303 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Daniel Possenriede & Wolter H.J. Hassink & Janneke Plantenga, 2016. "Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the supply of working hours? Evidence from the Netherlands," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-34, December.
    19. Carlianne Patrick & Heather Stephens & Amanda Weinstein, 2016. "Where are all the self-employed women? Push and pull factors influencing female labor market decisions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 365-390, March.
    20. Daniel Possenriede & Wolter Hassink & Janneke Plantenga, 2014. "Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the labour supply of part-timers?," Working Papers 14-11, Utrecht School of Economics.
    21. Kimbrough, Gray, 2016. "What Drives Gender Differences in Commuting Behavior: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey," UNCG Economics Working Papers 16-4, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics, revised 10 Jun 2016.
    22. Gray Kimbrough, 2016. "What Drives Gender Differences in Commuting? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey," 2016 Papers pki275, Job Market Papers.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female labor supply; Local labor markets; Commute time; Non-convex budget sets;

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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