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Perfect Competition

  • M. Ali Khan

    (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA)

In his 1987 entry on ‘Perfect Competition’ in The New Palgrave, the author reviewed the question of the perfectness of perfect competition, and gave four alternative formalisations rooted in the so-called Arrow-Debreu-Mckenzie model. That entry is now updated for the second edition to include work done on the subject during the last twenty years. A fresh assessment of this literature is offered, one that emphasises the independence assumption whereby individual agents are not related except through the price system. And it highlights a ‘linguistic turn’ whereby Hayek’s two fundamental papers on ‘division of knowledge’ are seen to have devastating consequences for this research programme

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File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/Working%20Paper%20No.%2015.pdf
File Function: First Version, 2007
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Paper provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its series PIDE-Working Papers with number 2007:15.

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Length: 21 pages.
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2007:15
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  1. M. Khan & Kali Rath & Yeneng Sun, 2006. "The Dvoretzky-Wald-Wolfowitz theorem and purification in atomless finite-action games," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 91-104, April.
  2. Avallone, Anna & Basile, Achille, 1998. "Liapunov-Richter theorem in B-convex spaces," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 109-118, August.
  3. Starrett, David A., 1972. "Fundamental nonconvexities in the theory of externalities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 180-199, April.
  4. Ali Khan, M. & Rashid, Salim, 1982. "Approximate equilibria in markets with indivisible commodities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 82-101, October.
  5. Yeneng Sun, 1999. "The complete removal of individual uncertainty: multiple optimal choices and random exchange economies," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 507-544.
  6. Vohra, Rajiv, 1992. "Marginal Cost Pricing under Bounded Marginal Returns," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 859-76, July.
  7. Balder, Erik J., 2000. "Incompatibility of Usual Conditions for Equilibrium Existence in Continuum Economies without Ordered Preferences," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 110-117, July.
  8. Khan, M. Ali & Sun, Yeneng, 1999. "Non-cooperative games on hyperfinite Loeb spaces1," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 455-492, May.
  9. Aloisio Araujo & V. Martins-da-Rocha & Paulo Monteiro, 2004. "Equilibria in reflexive Banach lattices with a continuum of agents," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 469-492, October.
  10. Filipe Martins-da-Rocha, V., 2003. "Equilibria in large economies with a separable Banach commodity space and non-ordered preferences," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 863-889, November.
  11. Cornet, B., 1984. "Existence of equilibria in economies with increasing returns," CORE Discussion Papers 1984007, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  12. Charalambos Aliprantis & Monique Florenzano & Rabee Tourky, 2006. "Production equilibria," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00092809, HAL.
  13. Anderson, Robert M & Khan, M Ali & Rashid, Salim, 1982. "Approximate Equilibria with Bounds Independent of Preferences," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 473-75, July.
  14. Donald J. Brown & M. Ali Khan, 1977. "An Extension of the Brown-Robinson Equivalence Theorem," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 444, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  15. Otani, Yoshihiko & Sicilian, Joseph, 1977. "Externalities and problems of nonconvexity and overhead costs in welfare economics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 239-251, April.
  16. Brown, Donald J & Robinson, Abraham, 1975. "Nonstandard Exchange Economies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(1), pages 41-56, January.
  17. Lionel W. McKenzie, 2005. "Classical General Equilibrium Theory," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633302, June.
  18. Starr, Ross M, 1969. "Quasi-Equilibria in Markets with Non-Convex Preferences," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(1), pages 25-38, January.
  19. Jackson, Matthew O. & Manelli, Alejandro M., 1997. "Approximately Competitive Equilibria in Large Finite Economies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 354-376, December.
  20. Tourky, Rabee & Yannelis, Nicholas C., 2001. "Markets with Many More Agents than Commodities: Aumann's "Hidden" Assumption," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 189-221, November.
  21. Roberto Serrano & Rajiv Vohra & Oscar Volij, 1999. "On the Failure of Core Convergence in Economies with Asymmetric Information," Economic theory and game theory 011, Oscar Volij.
  22. Volij, Oscar & Serrano, Roberto, 2000. "Walrasian Allocations Without Price-Taking Behavior," Staff General Research Papers 5168, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  23. Bernard Cornet & Jean Marc Bonnisseau, 2009. "Existence of Equilibria with a Tight Marginal Pricing Rule," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 200908, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2009.
  24. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Zame, William R., 1991. "Equilibrium theory in infinite dimensional spaces," Handbook of Mathematical Economics, in: W. Hildenbrand & H. Sonnenschein (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 34, pages 1835-1898 Elsevier.
  25. Forges, Francoise & Minelli, Enrico & Vohra, Rajiv, 2002. "Incentives and the core of an exchange economy: a survey," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1-2), pages 1-41, September.
  26. Anderson, Robert M, 1978. "An Elementary Core Equivalence Theorem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1483-87, November.
  27. M. J. Farrell, 1959. "The Convexity Assumption in the Theory of Competitive Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 377.
  28. Khan, M. Ali & Vohra, Rajiv, 1984. "Equilibrium in abstract economies without ordered preferences and with a measure space of agents," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 133-142, October.
  29. Khan, M. Ali & Vohra, Rajiv, 1985. "On the existence of lindahl equilibria in economies with a measure space of non-transitive consumers," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 319-332, August.
  30. FORGES, Françoise & HEIFETZ , Aviad & MINELLI, Enrico, . "Incentive compatible core and competitive equilibria in differential information economies," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1555, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  31. Ali Khan, M. & Peck, N. T., 1989. "On the interiors of production sets in infinite dimensional spaces," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 29-39, February.
  32. Herves-Beloso, Carlos & Moreno-Garcia, Emma & Yannelis, Nicholas C., 2005. "An equivalence theorem for a differential information economy," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(7), pages 844-856, November.
  33. Armstrong, Thomas E. & Richter, Marcel K., 1986. "Existence of nonatomic core-walras allocations," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 137-159, February.
  34. Hart, Sergiu, 2002. "Values of perfectly competitive economies," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 57, pages 2169-2184 Elsevier.
  35. Noguchi, Mitsunori, 2005. "Interdependent preferences with a continuum of agents," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 665-686, September.
  36. Khan, M Ali, 1999. " The Mordukhovich Normal Cone and the Foundations of Welfare Economics," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 1(3), pages 309-38.
  37. Chris Shannon., 1994. "Increasing Returns in Infinite Horizon Economies," Economics Working Papers 94-232, University of California at Berkeley.
  38. Geller, William, 1986. "An Improved Bound for Approximate Equilibria [Approximate Equilibria with Bounds Independent of Preferences]," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(2), pages 307-08, April.
  39. M Ali Khan & Yeneng Sun, 1996. "Non-Atomic Games on Loeb Spaces," Economics Working Paper Archive 374, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics, revised Aug 1996.
  40. Bernard Cornet & Mihaela Topuzu, 2005. "Existence of equilibria for economies with externalities and a measure space of consumers," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 397-421, 08.
  41. Anderson, Robert M., 1991. "Non-standard analysis with applications to economics," Handbook of Mathematical Economics, in: W. Hildenbrand & H. Sonnenschein (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 39, pages 2145-2208 Elsevier.
  42. V. Martins-da-Rocha, 2004. "Equilibria in large economies with differentiated commodities and non-ordered preferences," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 529-552, March.
  43. Bonnisseau, J.M., 2000. "The Marginal Pricing Rule in Economies with Infinitely Many Commodities," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.47, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  44. Donald J. Brown, 1972. "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium in a Nonstandard Exchange Economy," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 342, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  45. Zame, William R. & Noguchi, Mitsunori, 2006. "Competitive markets with externalities," Theoretical Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 1(2), pages 143-166, June.
  46. Anderson, Robert M., 1992. "The core in perfectly competitive economies," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 413-457 Elsevier.
  47. Koopmans, Tjalling C, 1974. "Is the Theory of Competitive Equilibrium With It?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(2), pages 325-29, May.
  48. KHAN , M. Ali & SUN, Yeneng, 1997. "On Loeb measures spaces and their significance for non-cooperative game theory," CORE Discussion Papers 1997012, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  49. Tjalling C. Koopmans, 1961. "Convexity Assumptions, Allocative Efficiency, and Competitive Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69, pages 478.
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