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The Heterogeneous Effects of HIV Testing

Author

Listed:
  • Sarah Baird

    () (Department of Economics, University of Otago, New Zealand)

  • Erick Gong

    () (Department of Economics, Middlebury College)

  • Craig McIntosh

    () (School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, UC San Diego)

  • Berk Ozler

    () (Department of Economics, University of Otago, New Zealand)

Abstract

An extensive multi-disciplinary literature examines the effects of learning one’s HIV status on subsequent risky sexual behaviors. However, many of these studies rely on nonexperimental designs; use self-reported outcome measures, or both. In this study, we investigate the effects of a randomly assigned Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) intervention on risky sexual behaviors and schooling investments among school-age females in Malawi. We find no overall effects on HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2), or test scores at follow-up. However, receiving a HIV-positive test result causes a large increase in the probability of contracting HSV-2, with stronger effects among those surprised by the HIV-positive test results. Similarly, those surprised by HIV-negative test results see a significant improvement in achievement test scores, consistent with increased returns to investments in human capital. We view the finding on increased HSV-2 prevalence among HIV-positive individuals as a caution to the conventional wisdom that those who learn they are HIV-positive will adopt safer sexual practices.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah Baird & Erick Gong & Craig McIntosh & Berk Ozler, 2013. "The Heterogeneous Effects of HIV Testing," Working Papers 1310, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:otg:wpaper:1310
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    File URL: http://www.otago.ac.nz/economics/research/otago076645pdf.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Baird, Sarah & Özler, Berk, 2012. "Examining the reliability of self-reported data on school participation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 89-93.
    2. Emily Oster & Ira Shoulson & E. Ray Dorsey, 2013. "Optimal Expectations and Limited Medical Testing: Evidence from Huntington Disease," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(2), pages 804-830, April.
    3. Michael Kremer, 1996. "Integrating Behavioral Choice into Epidemiological Models of AIDS," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(2), pages 549-573.
    4. Sarah Baird & Craig McIntosh & Berk Özler, 2011. "Cash or Condition? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1709-1753.
    5. Adeline Delavande & Hans-Peter Kohler, 2012. "The Impact of HIV Testing on Subjective Expectations and Risky Behavior in Malawi," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 49(3), pages 1011-1036, August.
    6. Thornton, Rebecca L., 2012. "HIV testing, subjective beliefs and economic behavior," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 300-313.
    7. Markus Goldstein & Joshua Graff Zivin & James Habyarimana & Cristian Pop-Eleches & Harsha Thirumurthy, 2013. "The Effect of Absenteeism and Clinic Protocol on Health Outcomes: The Case of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(2), pages 58-85, April.
    8. Michael Kremer, 1996. "Integrating Behavioral Choice into Epidemiological Models of the AIDS Epidemic," NBER Working Papers 5428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Aureo de Paula & Gil Shapira & Petra E. Todd, 2008. "How Beliefs about HIV Status Affect Risky Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi, Fifth Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 10-023, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 10 Jul 2010.
    10. Michael A. Boozer & Tomas J. Philipson, 2000. "The Impact of Public Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(3), pages 419-446.
    11. Erick Gong, 2011. "HIV Testing and Risky Sexual Behavior," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 1101, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
    12. David S. Lee, 2009. "Training, Wages, and Sample Selection: Estimating Sharp Bounds on Treatment Effects," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(3), pages 1071-1102.
    13. Rebecca L. Thornton, 2008. "The Demand for, and Impact of, Learning HIV Status," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1829-1863, December.
    14. Anderson, Michael L., 2008. "Multiple Inference and Gender Differences in the Effects of Early Intervention: A Reevaluation of the Abecedarian, Perry Preschool, and Early Training Projects," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 103(484), pages 1481-1495.
    15. Robert Jensen, 2010. "The (Perceived) Returns to Education and the Demand for Schooling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(2), pages 515-548.
    16. Áureo de Paula & Gil Shapira & Petra E. Todd, 2011. "How Beliefs about HIV Status Affect Risky Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi, Seventh Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 11-033, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 15 Oct 2011.
    17. Poulin, Michelle, 2007. "Sex, money, and premarital partnerships in southern Malawi," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(11), pages 2383-2393, December.
    18. repec:aph:ajpbhl:1999:89:9:1397-1405_1 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Akogun, Oladele & Dillon, Andrew & Friedman, Jed & Prasann, Ashesh & Serneels, Pieter, 2017. "Productivity and Health: Alternative Productivity Estimates Using Physical Activity," IZA Discussion Papers 11115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Baranov, Victoria & Bennett, Daniel & Kohler, Hans-Peter, 2015. "The indirect impact of antiretroviral therapy: Mortality risk, mental health, and HIV-negative labor supply," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 195-211.
    3. Brendan Maughan-Brown & Neil D. Lloyd & Jacob Bor & Atheendar S. Venkataramani, 2015. "Increasing access to HIV testing: Impacts on equity of coverage and uptake from a national campaign in South Africa," SALDRU Working Papers 145, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
    4. Wilson, Nicholas, 2016. "Antiretroviral therapy and demand for HIV testing: Evidence from Zambia," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 221-240.
    5. Laura Derksen & Adamson Muula & Joep van Oosterhout, 2016. "Love in the Time of HIV: Testing as a Signal of Risk," Natural Field Experiments 00550, The Field Experiments Website.
    6. Andrew Dillon & Jed Friedman & Pieter Serneels, 2014. "Health information, treatment, and worker productivity: Experimental evidence from malaria testing and treatment among Nigerian sugarcane cutters," Working Paper series, University of East Anglia, Centre for Behavioural and Experimental Social Science (CBESS) 14-05, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK..
    7. Terris-Prestholt, Fern & Windmeijer, Frank, 2016. "How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 107-120.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development

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