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Wage effects of motherhood: a double selection approach

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Abstract

Wage differentials between mothers and childless women are estimated correcting for the selectivity bias resulting from two double selection processes: firstly, the motherhood decision and the employment decision, and secondly the motherhood decision and the decision to be employed in a less demanding job. We use Dutch data on women’s wages and construct an indicator for less demanding jobs. Our estimations indicate that the motherhood decision is strongly correlated with both employment and having a less demanding job. This suggests that ignoring these correlations will lead to inconsistent parameter estimations of wage equations. The selectivity corrected estimation of women’s wage differentials indicate that a large part of the wage differential is composed by discrimination compared to estimations without correction for selectivity.

Suggested Citation

  • Cécile Wetzels & Aslan Zorlu, 2003. "Wage effects of motherhood: a double selection approach," NIMA Working Papers 22, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
  • Handle: RePEc:nim:nimawp:22
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    1. Deborah J. Anderson & Melissa Binder & Kate Krause, 2002. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 354-358, May.
    2. Van de Ven, Wynand P. M. M. & Van Praag, Bernard M. S., 1981. "The demand for deductibles in private health insurance : A probit model with sample selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 229-252, November.
    3. Hans-Peter Kohler & José Antonio Ortega, 2002. "Tempo-Adjusted Period Parity Progression Measures:," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 6(7), pages 145-190, March.
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    1. Pinto, Ligia M. & Harrison, Glenn W., 2003. "Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 911-930, December.
    2. Lia Pacelli & Silvia Pasqua & Claudia Villosio, 2007. "What Does the Stork Bring to Women’s Working Career?," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 58, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    3. Ana Rute Cardoso & Priscila Ferreira, 2009. "The dynamics of job creation and destruction for university graduates: why a rising unemployment rate can be misleading," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(19), pages 2513-2521.
    4. Anabela Botelho & Ligia Costa Pinto, 2002. "Hypothetical, real, and predicted real willingness to pay in open-ended surveys: experimental results," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(15), pages 993-996.
    5. Aslan Zorlu & Joop Hartog, 2005. "The effect of immigration on wages in three european countries," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(1), pages 113-151, December.
    6. Elvira Lima & David K. Whynes, 2003. "Finance and performance of Portuguese hospitals," NIMA Working Papers 20, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    7. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai & Hélène Périvier, 2004. "The relative generosity of the EU-15 members states' child policies," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9293, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    8. Pedro Portugal & Ana Rute Cardoso, 2001. "Disentangling the minimum wage puzzle: an analysis of job accessions and separations from a longitudinal matched employer- employee data set," NIMA Working Papers 9, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    9. Paulo Guimarães, 2002. "The state of Portuguese research in economics: an analysis based on publications in international journals," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 1(1), pages 3-25, March.
    10. Usamah Fayez Al-Farhan, 2010. "Changes in the Gender Wage Gap in Germany during a Period of Rising Wage Inequality 1999-2006: Was it Discrimination in the Returns to Human Capital?," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 293, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    11. Ying Cao & Yuehua Zhang, 2012. "Hog insurance adoption and suppliers' discrimination: A bivariate probit model with partial observability," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(2), pages 233-255, May.
    12. Botelho, Anabela & Pinto, Ligia Costa, 2004. "Students' expectations of the economic returns to college education: results of a controlled experiment," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 645-653, December.
    13. Fontaine, Roméo, 2011. "Le soutien familial aux personnes âgées dépendantes : Analyses micro-économétriques des comportements individuels et familiaux de prise en charge," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/7370 edited by Gramain, Agnès & Wittwer, Jérôme, January.
    14. Anabela Botelho & Lígia Costa Pinto & Miguel Portela & Antonio Silva, 2001. "The determinants of success in university entrance," NIMA Working Papers 13, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    15. Lia Pacelli & Silvia Pasqua & Claudia Villosio, 2013. "Labor Market Penalties for Mothers in Italy," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 408-432, December.
    16. Anabela Botelho, 2001. "Strategic behavior at trial-The production, reporting, and evaluation of complex evidence," NIMA Working Papers 14, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    17. Joao Cerejeira da Silva, 2002. "Identification of the Portuguese industrial districts," NIMA Working Papers 17, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    18. Danièle Meulders & Siv Gustavsson, 2006. "The rationale of motherhood choices: influence of employment conditions and public policies :MOCHO," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/7734, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. David Marmet, 2004. "Growth of New Firms: Which Factors Influence Post-Entry Performance? An Empirical Analysis Based on Swiss Firm Data," KOF Working papers 04-97, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    20. Bertrand, Olivier & Hakkala, Katariina & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan, 2007. "Cross-Border Acquisition or Greenfield Entry: Does it Matter for Affiliate R&D?," Working Paper Series 693, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    21. Elvira Lima & Teresa J. Esquerdo, 2003. "The economic costs of alcohol misuse in Portugal," NIMA Working Papers 24, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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