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The Effects of Parenthood on Workforce Participation and Income for Men and Women

  • Sheree Gibb
  • David Fergusson

    ()

  • L. Horwood
  • Joseph Boden
Registered author(s):

    This paper examined the effects of parenthood on workforce participation for men and women in the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 individuals born in New Zealand in 1977. The findings suggested that the effects of parenthood on workforce participation were different for men and women. For women, parenthood was associated with decreasing participation in paid employment and fewer hours worked. For men, however, parenthood was not associated with decreased workforce participation and in some cases was associated with increased working hours. These findings had consequences for personal income, with 83–90 % of the total gender income gap in this cohort being attributed to gender differences in the effects of parenthood. These findings suggest that parenthood has markedly different effects on workforce participation and income for men and women. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10834-013-9353-4
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    Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Family and Economic Issues.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 14-26

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    Handle: RePEc:kap:jfamec:v:35:y:2014:i:1:p:14-26
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104904

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    1. Francine D. Blau, 1998. "Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(1), pages 112-165, March.
    2. Markus Gangl & Andrea Ziefle, 2009. "Motherhood, labor force behavior, and women’s careers: An empirical assessment of the wage penalty for motherhood in britain, germany, and the united states," Demography, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 341-369, May.
    3. Joshi, Heather & Paci, Pierella & Waldfogel, Jane, 1999. "The Wages of Motherhood: Better or Worse?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 543-64, September.
    4. Deborah J. Anderson & Melissa Binder & Kate Krause, 2003. "The motherhood wage penalty revisited: experience, heterogeneity, work effort, and work-schedule flexibility," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(2), pages 273-294, January.
    5. José Molina & Víctor Montuenga, 2009. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty in Spain," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 237-251, September.
    6. Nan Astone & Jacinda Dariotis & Freya Sonenstein & Joseph Pleck & Kathryn Hynes, 2010. "Men’s Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 3-13, March.
    7. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
    8. C. Christie-Mizell, 2006. "The Effects of Traditional Family and Gender Ideology on Earnings: Race and Gender Differences," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 48-71, April.
    9. Marisa Young & Jean Wallace, 2009. "Family Responsibilities, Productivity, and Earnings: A Study of Gender Differences Among Canadian Lawyers," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 305-319, September.
    10. Christian Nsiah & Ron DeBeaumont & Annette Ryerson, 2013. "Motherhood and Earnings: Wage Variability by Major Occupational Category and Earnings Level," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 224-234, June.
    11. Jane Waldfogel, 1998. "Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(1), pages 137-156, Winter.
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