Determinants to Leave Agriculture and Change Occupational Sector: Evidence from an Enlarged EU
The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants to leave agriculture and change occupational sector. We adopt a 3-step multivariate probit where we control for selection bias at two stages in the decisions to work and, at a later stage, exit agriculture. The analysis is based on the European Union Labour Force Survey data expanded with additional regional indicators. The main results suggest that younger individuals are more likely to leave farming activities, although the largest outflows of agricultural labour are mainly associated with the retirement of people. Self-employed and family workers are generally less likely to leave agriculture and those with low levels of educations are found to be significantly constrained in entering the non-farm economy. Moreover, labour market conditions at the regional level do matter for switching occupational sector. Differences in the results among the selected NMS and the EU-15 can be explained by the diverse production structures, suggesting different capacities to release and absorb labour.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (+322) 229-39-11
Fax: (+322) 229-39-71
Web page: http://www.ceps.eu
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
- Huffman, Wallace E, 1980.
"Farm and Off-Farm Work Decisions: The Role of Human Capital,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 62(1), pages 14-23, February.
- Huffman, Wallace, 1980. "Farm and Off-Farm Work Decisions: The Role of Human Capital," Staff General Research Papers 10973, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Nigel Key & Michael J. Roberts, 2009. "Nonpecuniary Benefits to Farming: Implications for Supply Response to Decoupled Payments," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(1), pages 1-18.
- Larson, Donald & Mundlak, Yair, 1995.
"On the intersectoral migration of agricultural labor,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1425, The World Bank.
- Larson, Donald & Mundlak, Yair, 1997. "On the Intersectoral Migration of Agricultural Labor," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 295-319, January.
- Ayal Kimhi, 2000. "Is Part-Time Farming Really a Step in the Way Out of Agricultural?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(1), pages 38-48.
- Olper, Alessandro & Raimondi, Valentina & Cavicchioli, Daniele & Vigani, Mauro, 2012.
"Does the Common Agricultural Policy Reduce Farm Labour Migration? Panel data analysis across EU regions,"
128790, Factor Markets, Centre for European Policy Studies.
- Olper,Alessandro, & Raimondi,Valentina & Cavicchioli,Daniele & Vigani,Mauro, 2012. "Does the Common Agricultural Policy Reduce Farm Labour Migration? Panel data analysis across EU regions," Factor Markets Working Papers 133, Centre for European Policy Studies.
- Heckman, James, 2013.
"Sample selection bias as a specification error,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Nigel Key, 2005. "How much do farmers value their independence?," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(1), pages 117-126, 07.
- A. Colin Cameron & Pravin K. Trivedi, 2010. "Microeconometrics Using Stata, Revised Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, number musr, November.
- Bojnec, Stefan & Dries, Liesbeth & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2003. "Human Capital And Labor Flows Out Of The Agricultural Sector: Evidence From Slovenia," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25803, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Gunnar Breustedt & Thomas Glauben, 2007. "Driving Forces behind Exiting from Farming in Western Europe," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(1), pages 115-127, 02.
- Van de Ven, Wynand P. M. M. & Van Praag, Bernard M. S., 1981. "The demand for deductibles in private health insurance : A probit model with sample selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 229-252, November.
- Dries, Liesbeth & Swinnen, Johan F. M., 2002. "Institutional Reform and Labor Reallocation During Transition: Theory Evidence From Polish Agriculture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 457-474, March.
- Joakim Gullstrand & Kerem Tezic, 2008. "Who leaves after entering the primary sector? Evidence from Swedish micro-level data," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 35(1), pages 1-28, March.
- Key, Nigel D. & Roberts, Michael J., 2009. "AJAE appendix for â€œNonpecuniary Benefits to Farming: Implications for Supply Response to Decoupled Paymentsâ€," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(1), February.
- Glauben, Thomas & Tietje, Hendrik & Weiss, Christoph R., 2003. "Agriculture on the Move: Exploring Regional Differences in Farm Exit Rates," FE Working Papers 0308, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Food Economics and Consumption Studies.
- Stefan Bojnec & Liesbeth Dries, 2005. "Causes of Changes in Agricultural Employment in Slovenia: Evidence from Micro-data," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 399-416.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eps:fmwppr:158. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Eleni Kaditi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.