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The Post-childbirth Employment of Canadian Mothers and the Earnings Trajectories of Their Continuously Employed Counterparts, 1983 to 2004

  • Zhang, Xuelin
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    Using the 1983-to-2004 Longitudinal Worker File, this study examines the post-childbirth employment, job mobility and earnings trajectories of Canadian mothers. We found that both the long- and the short-term post-childbirth employment rates of early 2000s cohorts of Canadian mothers were higher than their mid-1980s counterparts, and, relative to childless women, Canadian mothers became less likely to quit over time. Our data also allow us to examine the earnings impact of childbirth for a group of Canadian mothers who had strong labour market attachment. For them, earnings dropped by 40% and 30% in the year of childbirth and the year after, respectively. Under both the fixed-effects and the fixed-trend models, the earnings impact of childbirth declined over the other post-childbirth years. Results from the fixed-trend model further suggest that, from the second to the seventh post-childbirth years, the negative effects varied between 8% and 3% and became negligible thereafter.

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    Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series with number 2008314e.

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    Date of creation: 27 Aug 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2008314e
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6
    Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca

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    1. Gubta, Nabanita Datta & Smith, Nina, 2000. "Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark," CLS Working Papers 00-3, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
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    3. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
    4. Frenette, Marc & Morissette, René & Zhang, Xuelin, 2009. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers: Canadian Evidence from a Large Administrative Database on Firm Closures and Mass Layoffs," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-51, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 25 Sep 2009.
    5. Joshi, Heather & Paci, Pierella & Waldfogel, Jane, 1999. "The Wages of Motherhood: Better or Worse?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 543-64, September.
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    7. Kunze, Astrid & Ejrnæs, Mette, 2004. "Wage Dips and Drops around First Birth," IZA Discussion Papers 1011, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. James W. Albrecht & Per-Anders Edin & Marianne Sundström & Susan B. Vroman, 1999. "Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 294-311.
    9. Belzil, Christian & Hergel, Philip, 1999. " Fertility and the Human Capital Loss of Non-participation," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(2), pages 153-66, May.
    10. Reuben Gronau, 1982. "Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg," NBER Working Papers 1002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
    12. Mikal Skuterud, 2008. "Perinatal Family Labour Supply: Historical Trends and the Modern Experience," Working Papers 08001, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Feb 2008.
    13. Lundberg, Shelly & Rose, Elaina, 2000. "Parenthood and the earnings of married men and women," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 689-710, November.
    14. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
    15. Christy Spivey, 2005. "Time off at what price? The effects of career interruptions on earnings," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 59(1), pages 119-140, October.
    16. Edin, P.A. & Nynabb, J., 1992. "Gender Wage Differentials and Interrupted Work Careers : Swedish Evidence," Papers 1992-17, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    17. Drolet, Marie, 2002. "Wives, Mothers and Wages: Does Timing Matter?," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002186e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    18. Christy Spivey, 2005. "Time off at What Price? The Effects of Career Interruptions on Earnings," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 59(1), pages 119-140, October.
    19. Shelley Phipps & Peter Burton & Lynn Lethbridge, 2001. "In and out of the labour market: long-term income consequences of child-related interruptions to women's paid work," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(2), pages 411-429, May.
    20. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2005. "How Does Job-Protected Maternity Leave Affect Mothers' Employment and Infant Health?," NBER Working Papers 11135, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Deborah J. Anderson & Melissa Binder & Kate Krause, 2003. "The motherhood wage penalty revisited: experience, heterogeneity, work effort, and work-schedule flexibility," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(2), pages 273-294, January.
    22. Tarja K. Viitanen, 2004. "The Impact of Children on Female Earnings in Britain," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 415, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    23. Deborah J. Anderson & Melissa Binder & Kate Krause, 2003. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(2), pages 273-294, January.
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