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The Price of Motherhood: Family Status and Women's Pay in a Young British Cohort

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  • Waldfogel, Jane

Abstract

This paper investigates wage differentials among women related to family status (the family gap) as well as wage inequality between men and women (the gender gap) using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. In a cross-section, there is a family gap of 20-22 percent. The longitudinal results provide little evidence that this gap is due to unobserved heterogeneity. Rather, the family gap appears to be due to the direct and indirect effects of having children. The paper also finds a large wage premium for using maternity leave and returning to work as well as a large penalty for working part-time. Copyright 1995 by Royal Economic Society.

Suggested Citation

  • Waldfogel, Jane, 1995. "The Price of Motherhood: Family Status and Women's Pay in a Young British Cohort," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 584-610, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:oxecpp:v:47:y:1995:i:4:p:584-610
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    Cited by:

    1. Angela Stefania Bergantino & Leonardo Madio, 2015. "The Travel-to-work. Which factors matter? An analysis on regional labor market in UK," ERSA conference papers ersa15p888, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Tarja K. Viitanen, 2004. "The Impact of Children on Female Earnings in Britain," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 415, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Lia Pacelli & Silvia Pasqua & Claudia Villosio, 2007. "What Does the Stork Bring to Women’s Working Career?," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 58, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    4. Jane Waldfogel, 1998. "Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(1), pages 137-156, Winter.
    5. Jane Waldfogel & Wendy Sigle-Rushton, 2006. "Motherhood and Women’s Earnings in Anglo-American, Continental European, and Nordic Countries," LIS Working papers 454, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    6. Tarja Viitanen, 2014. "The motherhood wage gap in the UK over the life cycle," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 259-276, June.
    7. Sami Napari, 2010. "Is There a Motherhood Wage Penalty in the Finnish Private Sector?," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(1), pages 55-73, March.
    8. Molina, José Alberto & Montuenga, Víctor M., 2008. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty in a Mediterranean Country: The Case of Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 3574, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Michal Myck & Gillian Paull, 2001. "The role of employment experience in explaining the gender wage gap," IFS Working Papers W01/18, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    10. Zhang, Xuelin, 2008. "Emploi des meres canadiennes apres la naissance d'un enfant et trajectoires des gains de leurs homologues occupees de facon continue, 1983 a 2004," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 2008314f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
    11. Nizalova, Olena Y. & Sliusarenko, Tamara & Shpak, Solomiya, 2016. "The motherhood wage penalty in times of transition," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 56-75.
    12. Bloemen, Hans & Kalwij, Adriaan S., 2001. "Female labor market transitions and the timing of births: a simultaneous analysis of the effects of schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 593-620, December.
    13. Arnaud Dupuy & Daniel Fernandez-Kranz, 2011. "International differences in the family gap in pay: the role of labour market institutions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 413-438.
    14. Bergantino, Angela Stefania & Madio, Leonardo, 2016. "Travel-to-work. Which factors matter? An analysis on regional labor markets in the Uk," Working Papers 16_1, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica.
    15. Self, Sharmistha, 2005. "What makes motherhood so expensive?: The role of social expectations, interdependence, and coordination failure in explaining lower wages of mothers," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 850-865, December.
    16. Chang, Chia-Ying & Laing, Derek & Wang, Ping, 2012. "Job matching, family gap and fertility choice," Working Paper Series 2069, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance.
    17. Davies, Rhys & Pierre, Gaelle, 2005. "The family gap in pay in Europe: a cross-country study," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 469-486, August.

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