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Brain Drain from Turkey: An Investigation of Students’ Return Intentions

Author

Listed:
  • Nil Demet Gungor

    () (Economics Department, Atilim University)

  • Aysit Tansel

    () (Department of Economics, METU)

Abstract

The emigration of skilled individuals from Turkey attracted greater media attention and the interest of policymakers in Turkey, particularly after the experience of recurrent economic crises that have led to an increase in unemployment among the highly educated young. This study estimates a model of return intentions using a dataset compiled from an Internet survey of Turkish students residing abroad. The findings of this study indicate that, as expected, higher salaries offered in the host country and lifestyle preferences, including a more organized environment in the host country, increase the probability of student non-return. However, the analysis also points to the importance of prior return intentions and the role of the family in the decision to return to Turkey or stay overseas. It is also found that the compulsory service requirement attached to government scholarships increases the probability of student return. Turkish Student Association membership also increases return intentions. Longer stay durations, on the other hand, decrease the probability of return. These findings have important policy implications.

Suggested Citation

  • Nil Demet Gungor & Aysit Tansel, 2007. "Brain Drain from Turkey: An Investigation of Students’ Return Intentions," ERC Working Papers 0701, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Jan 2007.
  • Handle: RePEc:met:wpaper:0701
    as

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    File URL: http://www.erc.metu.edu.tr/menu/series07/0701.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2007
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Nil Demet Gungor & Aysıt Tansel, 2008. "Brain drain from Turkey: an investigation of students' return intentions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(23), pages 3069-3087.
    2. Stark, Oded & Bloom, David E, 1985. "The New Economics of Labor Migration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 173-178, May.
    3. Chiswick, Barry R & Miller, Paul W, 1995. "The Endogeneity between Language and Earnings: International Analyses," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 246-288, April.
    4. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-563, July.
    5. Aysit Tansel & Nil Demet Gungor, 2003. "Brain Drain from Turkey: Survey Evidence of Student Non-Return," Working Papers 0307, Economic Research Forum, revised 03 2003.
    6. Tomz, Michael & Wittenberg, Jason & King, Gary, 2003. "Clarify: Software for Interpreting and Presenting Statistical Results," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 8(i01).
    7. Tain-Jy Chen & Hsien-Yang Su, 1995. "On the-job training as a cause of brain drain," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 131(3), pages 526-541, September.
    8. Michael Benarroch & Hugh Grant, 2004. "The interprovincial migration of Canadian physicians: does income matter?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(20), pages 2335-2345.
    9. Aysit Tansel & Nil Demet Gungor, 1997. "The Educational Attainment of Turkey's Labor Force: A Comparison Across Provinces and Overtime," Working Papers 9706, Economic Research Forum, revised 05 Aug 1997.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nil Demet Gungor & Aysıt Tansel, 2008. "Brain drain from Turkey: an investigation of students' return intentions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(23), pages 3069-3087.
    2. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:5:p:886-900 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ondřej Glazar & Wadim Strielkowski, 2010. "Turkey and the European Union: Possible Incidence of the EU Accession on Migration Flows," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(3), pages 218-235.
    4. Helena Barnard & Robin Cowan & Moritz Müller, 2016. "On the value of foreign PhDs in the developing world: Training versus selection effects," Working Papers of BETA 2016-04, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    5. Ciriaci, Daria, 2009. "University quality, interregional brain drain and spatial inequality. The case of Italy," MPRA Paper 30015, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Mar 2011.
    6. Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2015. "Return migration of high skilled workers," Econometric Institute Research Papers 78065, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    7. Dulam, T.W. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2014. "Microeconomic determinants of skilled migration: The case of Suriname," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2014-21, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    8. Nil Demet Güngör & Aysit Tansel, 2008. "Brain drain from Turkey: the case of professionals abroad," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 29(4), pages 323-347, July.
    9. Marcin Holda & Katarzyna Saczuk & Pawel Strzelecki & Robert Wyszynski, 2011. "Settlers and Guests - Determinants of the Plans of Return Migration from UK and Ireland to Poland in the Period 2007-2009," NBP Working Papers 84, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    10. Jan-Jan Soon, 2010. "A Change of Heart? A Bivariate Probit Model of International Students' Change of Return Intention," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 9(2), pages 115-129, August.
    11. Gega Todua, 2017. "Financing Education Abroad: A Developing Country Perspective," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp608, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    12. repec:spr:anresc:v:59:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00168-016-0762-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Jan-Jan Soon, 2009. "When do students intend to return? Determinants of students' return intentions using a multinomial logit model," Working Papers 0906, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Jun 2009.
    14. Jan-Jan Soon, 2008. "The determinants of international students' return intention," Working Papers 0806, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2008.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Student non-return; brain drain; return intentions; Turkey;

    JEL classification:

    • F20 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - General
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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