Brain Drain from Turkey: The Case of Professionals Abroad
The paper presents research findings on the return intentions of Turkish professionals residing abroad. The study uses a descriptive framework to establish the validity of several proposed models of non-return. The results are based on an internet survey of Turkish professionals abroad. Correspondence analysis is used to examine the relationship between return intentions and various factors that may affect this intention. The results emphasize the importance of student non-return versus traditional brain and appear to complement the various theories of student non-return. The respondents appear to come from relatively well-to-do families with highly educated parents. Many have earned their degrees from universities that have foreign language instruction. The recent economic crises in Turkey have negatively affected return intentions. We verify that return intentions are indeed linked closely with initial return plans, and that this relationship weakens with stay duration. Specialized study and work experience in the host country also all appear to contribute to explaining the incidence of non-return. Return intentions are weaker for those working in an academic environment. These results lead to important policy implications, some of which include the training of individuals for academic positions at domestic institutions, supporting study abroad for shorter periods and improving academic facilities in Turkey’s newly established universities. The government may support public and private R&D centers to increase the employability of returnees, but also to improve the quality of the higher education system in order to both reduce the need for education abroad and to increase the attractiveness of universities as prospective employment places for those acquiring education and experience abroad.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: International Journal of Manpower, 2008, 29 (4), 323-347|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bewley, Truman F., 1998. "Why not cut pay?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 459-490, May.
- Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1998.
"Human capital depletion, human capital formation, and migration: a blessing or a "curse"?,"
Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 363-367, September.
- Oded Stark & Christian Helmenstein & Alexia Prskawetz, 1998. "Human Capital Depletion, Human Capital Formation, and Migration: A Blessing in a "Curse"?," Departmental Working Papers _096, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics.
- Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1998. "Human Capital Depletion, Human Capital Formation, and Migration. A Blessing in a "Curse"?," Economics Series 55, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Donald Lien, 2006. "Borderless Education and Domestic Programs," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 297-308.
- Tain-Jy Chen & Hsien-Yang Su, 1995. "On the-job training as a cause of brain drain," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 131(3), pages 526-541, September.
- Riccardo Faini, 2006.
"Remittances and the brain drain,"
Development Working Papers
214, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1997.
"A Brain Gain with a Brain Drain,"
45, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Nil Demet Gungor & Aysit Tansel, 2007.
"Brain Drain from Turkey: An Investigation of Students’ Return Intentions,"
ERC Working Papers
0701, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Jan 2007.
- Nil Demet Gungor & Aysıt Tansel, 2008. "Brain drain from Turkey: an investigation of students' return intentions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(23), pages 3069-3087.
- Güngör, Nil Demet & Tansel, Aysit, 2006. "Brain Drain from Turkey: An Investigation of Students' Return Intentions," IZA Discussion Papers 2287, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Nil Demet Gungor & Aysit Tansel, 2006. "Brain Drain From Turkey: An Investigation of Students’ Return Intentions," Working Papers 2006/11, Turkish Economic Association.
- Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2001.
"Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/10449, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Beine, Michel & Docquier, Frederic & Rapoport, Hillel, 2001. "Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 275-289, February.
- Tansel, Aysit, 2002. "Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 455-470, October.
- Docquier, Frédéric, 2006. "Brain Drain and Inequality Across Nations," IZA Discussion Papers 2440, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Bewley, Truman F, 1995. "A Depressed Labor Market as Explained by Participants," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 250-54, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2617. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.