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The Brain Drain. A Survey of the Literature

  • P. Giannoccolo

This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on Brain Drain (BD). We propose an ideal path that links the first studies with the most recent ones. In this development, the literature on BD focuses on a variety of economic and social issues and recalls to national and international debates. This paper uses more than 350 articles from a variety of sources. The sources are specialized professionals journals, internet research engines, governmental publications and newspapers. In the first section we analyse the main motivations of the researchers to study the BD and we propose an ideal path to interpret this literature. In the second section we analyse the different definitions of the BD and we show that the BD is a wide and complex phenomenon. In the third section we analyse the historical roots of the BD by identifying the BD “ante litteram”. In the fourth section we analyse the “geography” of the BD. Finally, in the fifth section we analyse both some important topics linked to the BD (International Organizations, Population and Research), both the economics models that study the BD.

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Paper provided by Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna in its series Working Papers with number 526.

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Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bol:bodewp:526
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  1. Davenport, Sally, 2004. "Panic and panacea: brain drain and science and technology human capital policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 617-630, May.
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  3. Roberto Chang, 1993. "Private investment and sovereign debt negotiations," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 93-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  4. Agarwal, Vinod B. & Yochum, Gilbert R., 1987. "The Eilberg Act, new seed immigration, and professional labor markets," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 275-283, June.
  5. Bellante, Don, 1978. "Changes in the migration of human capital and the southern "brain drain": Evidence from the censuses of 1960 and 1970," Journal of Behavioral Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-77.
  6. de Seynes, Philippe, 1972. "Prospects for a Future Whole World," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(01), pages 1-17, December.
  7. Beine, Michel & Docquier, Frederic & Rapoport, Hillel, 2001. "Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 275-289, February.
  8. Bhagwati, Jagdish N. & Hamada, Koichi, 1982. "Tax policy in the presence of emigration," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 291-317, August.
  9. Buiter, Willem H. & Kletzer, Kenneth M., 1992. "Fiscal policy coordination as fiscal federalism : Economic integration, public goods and efficiency in growing economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 647-653, April.
  10. Tain-Jy Chen & Hsien-Yang Su, 1995. "On the-job training as a cause of brain drain," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 131(3), pages 526-541, September.
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  12. Cox, Robert W., 1979. "Ideologies and the New International Economic Order: reflections on some recent literature," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(02), pages 257-302, March.
  13. Djajic, Slobodan & Milbourne, Ross, 1988. "A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration : The source-country perspective," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3-4), pages 335-351, November.
  14. van Dalen, Hendrik P., 1993. "International migration, economic policy and human capital accumulation : A simulation study," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 417-430, October.
  15. Corden, W M, 1984. "Harry Johnson's Contributions to International Trade Theory," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(4), pages 567-91, August.
  16. Chiswick, Carmel U, 1989. "The Impact of Immigration on the Human Capital of Natives," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 464-86, October.
  17. Robin W. Boadway & Frank R. Flatters, 1982. "Efficiency and Equalization Payments in a Federal System of Government: A Synthesis and Extension of Recent Results," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 15(4), pages 613-33, November.
  18. Djajic, Slobodan, 1989. "Skills and the Pattern of Migration: The Role of Qualitative and Quantitative Restrictions on International Labor Mobility," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 30(4), pages 795-809, November.
  19. Agarwal, Vinod B. & Winkler, Donald R., 1985. "United States immigration policy and indirect immigration of professionals," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 1-16, February.
  20. Ehrenberg, Ronald G, 1992. "The Flow of New Doctorates," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 830-75, June.
  21. Borjas, George J, 1987. "Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 531-53, September.
  22. Cox, Robert W., 1971. "Labor and Transnational Relations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(03), pages 554-584, June.
  23. Akbar, Sajjad & Devoretz, Don J., 1993. "Canada's demand for Third World highly trained immigrants: 1976-86," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 177-187, January.
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