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Time zones matter: The impact of distance and time zones on services trade

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  • Elisabeth Christen

Abstract

Using distance and time zone differences as a measure for coordination costs between service suppliers and consumers, we employ a Hausman- Taylor model for services trade by foreign affiliates. Given the need for proximity in the provision of services, factors like distance place a higher cost burden on the delivery of services in foreign markets. In addition, differences in time zones add significantly to the cost of doing business abroad. Decomposing the impact of distance into a longitudinal and latitudinal component and accounting for differences in time zones, it is possible to identify in detail the factors driving the impact of increasing coordination costs on the delivery of services through foreign affiliates. Working with a bilateral U.S. data set on foreign affiliate sales in services this paper examines the impact of time zone differences and East-West and North- South distance on U.S. outward affiliate sales. Both distance as well as time zone differences have a significant positive effect on foreign affiliate sales. By decomposing the effect of distance our results show that increasing East-West or North-South distance by 100 kilometers raises affiliates sales by 2%. Finally, focusing on time zone differences our findings suggest that affiliate sales increase the more time zones we have to overcome.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisabeth Christen, 2012. "Time zones matter: The impact of distance and time zones on services trade," Economics working papers 2012-10, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  • Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2012_10
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rebecca Tomasik, 2013. "Time zone-related continuity and synchronization effects on bilateral trade flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(2), pages 321-342, June.
    2. Sugata Marjit & Toru Kikuchi, 2011. "Time Zones and FDI with Heterogenous Firms," Discussion Papers Series 425, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    3. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree, 2018. "Time Zone Differences, Communication Cost and Service Trade," MPRA Paper 87465, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree & Bhattacharjee, Prasun, 2017. "A Review of Literature on Time Zone Difference and Trade," MPRA Paper 78779, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Nakanishi, Noritsugu, 2013. "Time Zones, Factor Prices and Inflow of Educational Capital: Changing Sectoral Composition," MPRA Paper 50883, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Egger, Peter H. & Larch, Mario, 2013. "Time zone differences as trade barriers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 172-175.
    7. Noritsugu Nakanishi & Ngo Van Long, 2015. "The Distributional and Allocative Impacts of Virtual Labor Mobility across Time Zones through Communication Networks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 638-662, August.
    8. Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Nakanishi, Noritsugu, 2015. "Outsourcing, Factor Prices and Skill Formation in Countries with Non-overlapping Time Zones," MPRA Paper 68227, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Foreign Affiliates Trade; International Trade in Services; Coordination Costs; Time zones;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

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