IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/68227.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Outsourcing, Factor Prices and Skill Formation in Countries with Non-overlapping Time Zones

Author

Listed:
  • Mandal, Biswajit
  • Marjit, Sugata
  • Nakanishi, Noritsugu

Abstract

Time Zone difference induced changes in trade and factor prices are relatively new concerns in trade literature. Here in this paper we formulate a trade model capturing the issue of Time Zone difference and communication technology revolution together to show that due to these developments skilled workers benefit. Though wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers is widened under reasonable and, of course, sensible condition. Return to capital dwindles while educational capital gets relatively high return. These changes also attract educational capital from abroad and eventually alter the sectoral composition of the economy in favor of more skill based one.

Suggested Citation

  • Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Nakanishi, Noritsugu, 2015. "Outsourcing, Factor Prices and Skill Formation in Countries with Non-overlapping Time Zones," MPRA Paper 68227, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:68227
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/68227/1/MPRA_paper_68227.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "International outsourcing and factor prices with multistage production," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(494), pages 166-185, March.
    2. Elisabeth Christen, 2017. "Time Zones Matter: The Impact of Distance and Time Zones on Services Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 612-631, March.
    3. Robert J. Barro, 1998. "Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262522543.
    4. Arnaud Costinot & Jonathan Vogel & Su Wang, 2013. "An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(1), pages 109-144.
    5. Pol Antràs & Luis Garicano & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "Offshoring in a Knowledge Economy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(1), pages 31-77.
    6. Philipp Harms & Oliver Lorz & Dieter Urban, 2012. "Offshoring along the production chain," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(1), pages 93-106, February.
    7. Bianka Dettmer, 2014. "International Service Transactions: Is Time a Trade Barrier in a Connected World?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(2), pages 225-254, June.
    8. Matsuoka, Yuji & Fukushima, Marcelo, 2010. "Time zones, shift working and international outsourcing," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 769-778, October.
    9. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2004. "Global Sourcing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 552-580, June.
    10. Mandal, Biswajit, 2015. "Distance, production, virtual trade and growth: A note," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-12.
    11. Sugata Marjit & Hamid Beladi, 2009. "International And Intra‐National Trade: A Continuum Approach," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 60(3), pages 320-332, September.
    12. Van Long, Ngo & Riezman, Raymond & Soubeyran, Antoine, 2005. "Fragmentation and services," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 137-152, March.
    13. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
    14. Toru Kikuchi & Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2013. "Trade with Time Zone Differences: Factor Market Implications," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 699-711, November.
    15. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
    16. Findlay, Ronald, 1978. "An "Austrian" Model of International Trade and Interest Rate Equalization," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 989-1007, December.
    17. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Marjit, Sugata & Kar, Saibal, 2011. "The Outsiders: Economic Reform and Informal Labour in a Developing Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198071495.
    19. Kikuchi, Toru & Marjit, Sugata, 2011. "Growth with time zone differences," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 637-640, January.
    20. Ronald W. Jones & Sugata Marjit, 2018. "The Role of International Fragmentation in the Development Process," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: International Trade Theory and Competitive Models Features, Values, and Criticisms, chapter 15, pages 255-261, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    21. Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2017. "Virtual trade between separated time zones and growth," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 13(2), pages 171-183, June.
    22. Noritsugu Nakanishi & Ngo Van Long, 2015. "The Distributional and Allocative Impacts of Virtual Labor Mobility across Time Zones through Communication Networks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 638-662, August.
    23. Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
    24. Biswajit Mandal & Sangita Roy, 2018. "Inflow of educational capital, trade liberalization, skill formation and informal sector," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 8(1), pages 115-129, April.
    25. Sarkar, Abhirup, 1985. "A model of trade in intermediate goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 85-98, August.
    26. Pol Antràs, 2003. "Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1375-1418.
    27. Sanyal, Kalyan K & Jones, Ronald W, 1982. "The Theory of Trade in Middle Products," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 16-31, March.
    28. Ronald W. Jones, 1965. "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 557-557.
    29. Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1998. "Human capital depletion, human capital formation, and migration: a blessing or a "curse"?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 363-367, September.
    30. Avinash K. Dixit & Gene M. Grossman, 1982. "Trade and Protection with Multistage Production," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 583-594.
    31. Beladi, Hamid & Marjit, Sugata & Weiher, Kenneth, 2011. "An analysis of the demand for skill in a growing economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1471-1474, July.
    32. Beladi, Hamid & Marjit, Sugata & Broll, Udo, 2011. "Capital mobility, skill formation and polarization," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1902-1906, July.
    33. Marjit, Sugata, 1987. "Trade in Intermediates and the Colonial Pattern of Trade," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 54(214), pages 173-184, May.
    34. Kar, Saibal & Beladi, Hamid, 2004. "Skill formation and international migration: welfare perspective of developing countries," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 35-54, January.
    35. repec:hrv:faseco:4784031 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "Aspects of International Fragmentation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 793-816, November.
    37. Sanyal, Kalyan K, 1983. "Vertical Specialization in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Stages of Production," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 50(197), pages 71-78, February.
    38. Marjit, Sugata & Kar, Saibal, 2005. "Emigration and wage inequality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 141-145, July.
    39. Ranjan, Priya, 2001. "Dynamic evolution of income distribution and credit-constrained human capital investment in open economies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 329-358, December.
    40. Ronald Jones & Sugata Marjit, 2009. "Competitive trade models and real world features," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 41(1), pages 163-174, October.
    41. Lanouar Charfeddine & Zouhair Mrabet, 2015. "Trade liberalization and relative employment: further evidence from Tunisia," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 5(1), pages 173-202, June.
    42. Ronald Findlay, 1995. "Infrastructure, Human Capital and International Trade," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 131(III), pages 289-301, September.
    43. Marjit, Sugata, 2007. "Trade theory and the role of time zones," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 153-160.
    44. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Prasad, Alaka Shree & Mandal, Biswajit, 2019. "Virtual trade between different time zones, educational capital and corrupt informal sector," MPRA Paper 96963, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2017. "Virtual trade between separated time zones and growth," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 13(2), pages 171-183, June.
    3. Biswajit Mandal & Alaka Shree Prasad, 2020. "A simple model of time zone differences, virtual trade and informality," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(1), pages 81-96, June.
    4. Biswajit Mandal & Sujata Ghosh, 2020. "Communication Cost, Skilled-Unskilled Wage, and Informality," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 18(4), pages 927-939, December.
    5. Alaka Shree Prasad & Biswajit Mandal, 2019. "Time zone difference, skill formation and corrupt informal sector: the role of virtual trade," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 261-290, December.
    6. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree, 2018. "Time Zone Differences, Communication Cost and Service Trade," MPRA Paper 87465, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Nakanishi, Noritsugu, 2013. "Time Zones, Factor Prices and Inflow of Educational Capital: Changing Sectoral Composition," MPRA Paper 50883, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Toru Kikuchi & Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2013. "Trade with Time Zone Differences: Factor Market Implications," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 699-711, November.
    3. Biswajit Mandal & Sujata Ghosh, 2020. "Communication Cost, Skilled-Unskilled Wage, and Informality," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 18(4), pages 927-939, December.
    4. Biswajit Mandal & Alaka Shree Prasad, 2020. "A simple model of time zone differences, virtual trade and informality," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(1), pages 81-96, June.
    5. Alaka Shree Prasad & Biswajit Mandal, 2019. "Time zone difference, skill formation and corrupt informal sector: the role of virtual trade," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 261-290, December.
    6. Prasad, Alaka Shree & Mandal, Biswajit, 2019. "Virtual trade between different time zones, educational capital and corrupt informal sector," MPRA Paper 96963, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree, 2018. "Time Zone Differences, Communication Cost and Service Trade," MPRA Paper 87465, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree & Bhattacharjee, Prasun, 2017. "A Review of Literature on Time Zone Difference and Trade," MPRA Paper 78779, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Biswajit Mandal & Sangita Roy, 2018. "Inflow of educational capital, trade liberalization, skill formation and informal sector," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 8(1), pages 115-129, April.
    10. Sugata Marjit & Toru Kikuchi, 2011. "Time Zones and FDI with Heterogenous Firms," Discussion Papers Series 425, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    11. Pol Antràs & Davin Chor, 2013. "Organizing the Global Value Chain," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(6), pages 2127-2204, November.
    12. Beladi, Hamid & Marjit, Sugata & Broll, Udo, 2011. "Capital mobility, skill formation and polarization," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1902-1906, July.
    13. Manash Ranjan Gupta & Priya Brata Dutta, 2018. "Skilled-unskilled wage inequality and structural transformation in a dual economy," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 311-332, December.
    14. Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2017. "Virtual trade between separated time zones and growth," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 13(2), pages 171-183, June.
    15. Pol Antràs & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2009. "Organizations and Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 43-64, May.
    16. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2014. "Global Value Chains: Surveying Drivers, Measures and Impacts," Working Papers w201403, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    17. Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2014. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 51-62.
    18. Noritsugu Nakanishi & Ngo Van Long, 2015. "The Distributional and Allocative Impacts of Virtual Labor Mobility across Time Zones through Communication Networks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 638-662, August.
    19. Beladi, Hamid & Marjit, Sugata & Weiher, Kenneth, 2011. "An analysis of the demand for skill in a growing economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1471-1474, July.
    20. Marjit, Sugata & Yang, Lei & Xu, Xinpeng, 2009. "International Trade and Local Outsourcing," MPRA Paper 19156, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Time Zone Differences; Trade in Business Services; Skilled and Unskilled Labor; Day-shift and Night-shift Work; Educational Capital;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:68227. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.