IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/inn/wpaper/2012-14.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Time zones matter: The impact of distance and time zones on services trade

Author

Listed:
  • Elisabeth Christen

Abstract

Using distance and time zone differences as a measure for coordination costs between service suppliers and consumers, we employ a Hausman-Taylor model for services trade by foreign affiliates. Given the need for proximity in the provision of services, factors like distance place a higher cost burden on the delivery of services in foreign markets. In addition, differences in time zones add significantly to the cost of doing business abroad. Decomposing the impact of distance into a longitudinal and latitudinal component and accounting for differences in time zones, it is possible to identify in detail the factors driving the impact of increasing coordination costs on the delivery of services through foreign affiliates. Working with a bilateral U.S. data set on foreign affiliate sales in services this paper examines the impact of time zone differences and East-West and North-South distance on U.S. outward affiliate sales. Both distance as well as time zone differences have a significant positive effect on foreign affiliate sales. By decomposing the effect of distance our results show that increasing East-West or North-South distance by 100 kilometers raises affiliates sales by 2%. Finally, focusing on time zone differences our findings suggest that affiliate sales increase the more time zones we have to overcome.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisabeth Christen, 2012. "Time zones matter: The impact of distance and time zones on services trade," Working Papers 2012-14, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  • Handle: RePEc:inn:wpaper:2012-14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www2.uibk.ac.at/downloads/c4041030/wpaper/2012-14.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Neary, J. Peter, 2009. "Trade costs and foreign direct investment," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 207-218, March.
    2. Portes, Richard & Rey, Helene, 2005. "The determinants of cross-border equity flows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 269-296, March.
    3. Lisa A. Kramer & Mark J. Kamstra & Maurice D. Levi, 2000. "Losing Sleep at the Market: The Daylight Saving Anomaly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 1005-1011, September.
    4. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
    5. Kikuchi, Toru & Long, Ngo Van, 2010. "A simple model of service offshoring with time zone differences," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 217-227, December.
    6. Egger, Peter H. & Larch, Mario, 2013. "Time zone differences as trade barriers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 172-175.
    7. Hausman, Jerry A & Taylor, William E, 1981. "Panel Data and Unobservable Individual Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1377-1398, November.
    8. Kolstad, Ivar & Villanger, Espen, 2008. "Determinants of foreign direct investment in services," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 518-533, June.
    9. V.N. Balasubramanyam, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment," Chapters, in: Amitava Krishna Dutt & Jaime Ros (ed.), International Handbook of Development Economics, Volumes 1 & 2, volume 0, chapter 39, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Richard Baldwin & Daria Taglioni, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," NBER Working Papers 12516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
    12. Joseph Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2010. "Services Trade and Policy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(3), pages 642-692, September.
    13. Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois, 2010. "Modes of Delivery in Services," Economics working papers 2010-08, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    14. Joseph Francois & Miriam Manchin & Patrick Tomberger, 2015. "Services Linkages and the Value Added Content of Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1631-1649, November.
    15. Mayer, Thierry & Zignago, Soledad, 2006. "Notes on CEPII’s distances measures," MPRA Paper 26469, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Loungani, Prakash & Mody, Ashoka & Razin, Assaf, 2002. "The Global Disconnect: The Role of Transactional Distance and Scale Economies in Gravity Equations," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 526-543, December.
    17. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois, 2017. "Modes of Supply for US Exports of Services," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 517-531, March.
    19. Robert C. Feenstra, 2002. "Border Effects and the Gravity Equation: Consistent Methods for Estimation," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 491-506, November.
    20. Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2003. "Fixed effects, random effects or Hausman-Taylor?: A pretest estimator," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 361-369, June.
    21. Kikuchi, Toru & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Time Zones and Periodic Intra-Industry Trade," MPRA Paper 24473, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-544, September.
    23. Stein, Ernesto & Daude, Christian, 2007. "Longitude matters: Time zones and the location of foreign direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 96-112, March.
    24. Peter Egger, 2005. "Alternative Techniques for Estimation of Cross‐Section Gravity Models," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(5), pages 881-891, November.
    25. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
    26. Rebecca Tomasik, 2013. "Time zone-related continuity and synchronization effects on bilateral trade flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(2), pages 321-342, June.
    27. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2006:i:15:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    28. Toru Kikuchi, 2006. "Time Zones, Outsourcing and Patterns of International Trade," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(15), pages 1-10.
    29. Marjit, Sugata, 2007. "Trade theory and the role of time zones," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 153-160.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Egger, Peter H. & Larch, Mario, 2013. "Time zone differences as trade barriers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 172-175.
    2. Cote, Christine & Estrin, Saul & Shapiro, Daniel, 2020. "Expanding the international trade and investment policy agenda: the role of cities and services," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 104003, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Noritsugu Nakanishi & Ngo Van Long, 2015. "The Distributional and Allocative Impacts of Virtual Labor Mobility across Time Zones through Communication Networks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 638-662, August.
    4. Rebecca Tomasik, 2013. "Time zone-related continuity and synchronization effects on bilateral trade flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(2), pages 321-342, June.
    5. Yushi Jiang & Muhammad Irfan Khan & Syed Imran Zaman & Athar Iqbal, 2021. "Financial development and trade in services: Perspective from emerging markets of Asia, South and Central America and Africa," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 3306-3320, July.
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2019. "Time zones and German exports: first evidence from firm-product level data," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 155(1), pages 181-198, February.
    7. Biswajit Mandal & Sugata Marjit & Noritsugu Nakanishi, 2018. "Outsourcing, factor prices and skill formation in countries with non-overlapping time zones," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 8(2), pages 289-304, August.
    8. Biswajit Mandal & Sujata Ghosh, 2020. "Communication Cost, Skilled-Unskilled Wage, and Informality," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 18(4), pages 927-939, December.
    9. Sugata Marjit & Toru Kikuchi, 2011. "Time Zones and FDI with Heterogenous Firms," Discussion Papers Series 425, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    10. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree, 2018. "Time Zone Differences, Communication Cost and Service Trade," MPRA Paper 87465, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Christine Côté & Saul Estrin & Daniel Shapiro, 2020. "Expanding the international trade and investment policy agenda: The role of cities and services," Journal of International Business Policy, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 3(3), pages 199-223, September.
    12. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree & Bhattacharjee, Prasun, 2017. "A Review of Literature on Time Zone Difference and Trade," MPRA Paper 78779, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Christine Côté & Saul Estrin & Daniel Shapiro, 0. "Expanding the international trade and investment policy agenda: The role of cities and services," Journal of International Business Policy, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 0, pages 1-25.
    14. Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Nakanishi, Noritsugu, 2013. "Time Zones, Factor Prices and Inflow of Educational Capital: Changing Sectoral Composition," MPRA Paper 50883, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Edward Anderson, 2014. "Time differences, communication and trade: longitude matters II," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(2), pages 337-369, May.
    2. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph, 2010. "Modes of Delivery in Services," CEPR Discussion Papers 7912, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois, 2017. "Modes of Supply for US Exports of Services," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 517-531, March.
    4. Raphaël Chiappini, 2012. "Un réexamen de la relation entre commerce et Investissement Direct à l'étranger (IDE) à partir d'un modèle en panel dynamique Le cas de l'Allemagne, la France et l'Italie," Working Papers hal-00744405, HAL.
    5. Anderson, James E. & Borchert, Ingo & Mattoo, Aaditya & Yotov, Yoto V., 2018. "Dark costs, missing data: Shedding some light on services trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 193-214.
    6. Kern, Milena & Paetzold, Joerg & Winner, Hannes, 2018. "Cutting Red Tape for Trade in Services," Working Papers in Economics 2018-9, University of Salzburg.
    7. Umber, Marc P. & Grote, Michael H. & Frey, Rainer, 2014. "Same as it ever was? Europe's national borders and the market for corporate control," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 109-127.
    8. Kahouli, Bassem & Maktouf, Samir, 2015. "The determinants of FDI and the impact of the economic crisis on the implementation of RTAs: A static and dynamic gravity model," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 518-529.
    9. Peter H. Egger & Joseph Francois & Douglas R. Nelson, 2017. "The Role of Goods-Trade Networks for Services-Trade Volume," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 532-543, March.
    10. Rebecca Tomasik, 2013. "Time zone-related continuity and synchronization effects on bilateral trade flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(2), pages 321-342, June.
    11. Stefano Federico & Enrico Tosti, 2017. "Exporters and Importers of Services: Firm-Level Evidence on Italy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(10), pages 2078-2096, October.
    12. Noritsugu Nakanishi & Ngo Van Long, 2015. "The Distributional and Allocative Impacts of Virtual Labor Mobility across Time Zones through Communication Networks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 638-662, August.
    13. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree, 2018. "Time Zone Differences, Communication Cost and Service Trade," MPRA Paper 87465, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Bahar, Dany & Hausmann, Ricardo & Hidalgo, Cesar A., 2014. "Neighbors and the evolution of the comparative advantage of nations: Evidence of international knowledge diffusion?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 111-123.
    15. Alaka Shree Prasad & Biswajit Mandal, 2019. "Time zone difference, skill formation and corrupt informal sector: the role of virtual trade," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 261-290, December.
    16. Erdal Yalcin & Davide Sala, 2014. "Uncertain Productivity Growth and the Choice between FDI and Export," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 189-208, February.
    17. Harach, Monika & Rodriguez-Crespo, Ernesto, 2014. "Foreign direct investment and trade: A bi-directional gravity approach," Kiel Advanced Studies Working Papers 467, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    18. Alexander Hijzen & Sébastien Jean & Thierry Mayer, 2011. "The effects at home of initiating production abroad: evidence from matched French firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 147(3), pages 457-483, September.
    19. Celine Azemar & Julia Darby & Rodolphe Desbordes & Ian Wooton, 2012. "Market Familiarity and the Location of South and North MNEs," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 307-345, November.
    20. Markus Kelle & Jörn Kleinert & Horst Raff & Farid Toubal, 2013. "Cross-border and Foreign Affiliate Sales of Services: Evidence from German Microdata," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(11), pages 1373-1392, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Foreign Affiliates Trade; International Trade in Services; Coordination Costs; Time zones;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inn:wpaper:2012-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/fuibkat.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Janette Walde (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/fuibkat.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.