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Modes of Delivery in Services

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  • Elisabeth Christen
  • Joseph Francois

Abstract

We develop a new analytical framework for both cross-border services trade and services trade through foreign affiliates, based on heterogeneous firms operating under oligopoly. This leads to direct predictions about choice of services delivery (mode of delivery) at the firm level, and about the pattern of bilateral trade at the industry level. We examine the industry-level predictions, working with a panel of U.S. data. Unlike the recent literature that works with FDI as a proxy for affiliate services sales, we work directly with data on bilateral U.S. trade through affiliates. These data feature more sector detail than in the recent literature. We also directly compare observed patterns of services trade and affiliate sales with the corresponding indicators of patterns of cross-border and affiliate sales for manufacturing sectors. In contrast to mixed results in manufacturing, in services overseas multinational activities consistently increase relative to direct exports the further away are host countries. Language and the presence of manufacturing FDI are also important. The impact of factors like corporate tax rates and relative stocks of human capital on modes of service delivery varies across sectors. The evidence on interdependence across modes and the importance of local affiliates implies that the impact of policy in any one mode is likely to depend on the mix of domestic regulation and policy across all modes of supply.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois, 2010. "Modes of Delivery in Services," Economics working papers 2010-08, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  • Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2010_08
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    1. repec:wip:wpaper:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Elisabeth Christen, 2017. "Time Zones Matter: The Impact of Distance and Time Zones on Services Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 612-631, March.
    3. Joseph Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2010. "Services Trade and Policy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(3), pages 642-692, September.
    4. Gnangnon, Sèna Kimm & Iyer, Harish, 2018. "Does bridging the Internet Access Divide contribute to enhancing countries' integration into the global trade in services markets?," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 61-77.
    5. Joseph Francois & Miriam Manchin & Patrick Tomberger, 2015. "Services Linkages and the Value Added Content of Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1631-1649, November.
    6. Stefano Federico & Enrico Tosti, 2017. "Exporters and Importers of Services: Firm-Level Evidence on Italy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(10), pages 2078-2096, October.
    7. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2012. "CGE modeling of market access in services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6106, The World Bank.
    8. Markus Kelle & Jörn Kleinert & Horst Raff & Farid Toubal, 2013. "Cross-border and Foreign Affiliate Sales of Services: Evidence from German Microdata," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(11), pages 1373-1392, November.
    9. Peter H. Egger & Joseph Francois & Douglas R. Nelson, 2017. "The Role of Goods-Trade Networks for Services-Trade Volume," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 532-543, March.
    10. Kern, Milena & Paetzold, Joerg & Winner, Hannes, 2018. "Cutting Red Tape for Trade in Services," Working Papers in Economics 2018-9, University of Salzburg.
    11. Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois, 2017. "Modes of Supply for US Exports of Services," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 517-531, March.
    12. Anderson, James E. & Borchert, Ingo & Mattoo, Aaditya & Yotov, Yoto V., 2018. "Dark costs, missing data: Shedding some light on services trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 193-214.
    13. Martijn J. Burger & Mark J. P. M. Thissen & Frank G. van Oort & Dario Diodato, 2014. "The Magnitude and Distance Decay of Trade in Goods and Services: New Evidence for European Countries," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 231-259, September.
    14. repec:hal:journl:dumas-00909960 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Tamara de la Mata, 2014. "Does trade creation by social and business networks hold in services?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(13), pages 1509-1525, May.
    16. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2013. "Computable General Equilibrium Modeling of Market Access in Services," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, in: Peter B. Dixon & Dale Jorgenson (ed.), Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 1601-1643, Elsevier.
    17. Suma Athreye & Yong Yang, 2011. "Disembodied Knowledge Flows in the World Economy," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 03, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division, revised Dec 2011.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    International trade in Services; Modes of Supply; FDI; Foreign Affiliates Trade; GATS;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

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