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Cross-Border Trade and FDI in Services


  • Fillat Castejón, Carmen
  • Francois, Joseph
  • Woerz, Julia


Working with a panel dataset of of OECD countries over the decade 1994-2004, we examine linkages between cross-border trade and FDI in the service sectors. We first develop a consistent analytical framework for the application of the gravity model jointly to services trade and commercial presence (i.e. FDI), using a composite model of delivery that offers testable hypotheses about the roles of different modes of services supply as complements or substitutes. We further link our estimates to policy variables measuring market regulations that may act directly or implicitly as barriers to trade. We find robust evidence of complementary effects in the short-run, which is reinforced in the long run by an increased potential for cross-border imports based on previous FDI inflows. A detailed analysis by individual service sectors highlights business, communication and financial services as showing the largest potential for cross-border trade when market regulations are reduced and when commercial presence increases.

Suggested Citation

  • Fillat Castejón, Carmen & Francois, Joseph & Woerz, Julia, 2008. "Cross-Border Trade and FDI in Services," CEPR Discussion Papers 7074, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7074

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Joseph Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2010. "Services Trade and Policy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(3), pages 642-692, September.
    2. Carolina Lennon, 2008. "Trade in services: Cross-border trade vs commercial presence. Evidence of complementarity," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586217, HAL.
    3. Stefano Federico & Enrico Tosti, 2017. "Exporters and Importers of Services: Firm-Level Evidence on Italy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(10), pages 2078-2096, October.
    4. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2012. "CGE modeling of market access in services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6106, The World Bank.
    5. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:3:p:532-543 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Peter H. Egger & Joseph Francois & Douglas R. Nelson, 2017. "The Role of Goods-Trade Networks for Services-Trade Volume," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 532-543, March.
    7. Valeriano Martínez-San Román & Marta Bengoa & Blanca Sánchez-Robles, 2016. "Foreign direct investment, trade integration and the home bias: evidence from the European Union," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 197-229, February.
    8. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph, 2010. "Modes of Delivery in Services," CEPR Discussion Papers 7912, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Isabelle Rabaud & Thierry Montalieu, 2012. "Une analyse critique des mesures de restrictions aux échanges de services," Post-Print halshs-01064953, HAL.
    10. Ranjan Dash & P. Parida, 2013. "FDI, services trade and economic growth in India: empirical evidence on causal links," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 217-238, August.
    11. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2013. "Computable General Equilibrium Modeling of Market Access in Services," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.
    12. Crozet, Matthieu & Milet, Emmanuel & Mirza, Daniel, 2016. "The impact of domestic regulations on international trade in services: Evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 585-607.

    More about this item


    FDI; services; services trade; trade and FDI substitution and complementarity;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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