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Trade in Services: Cross-Border Trade vs. Commercial Presence. Evidence of Complementarity

  • Carolina Lennon

    (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)

This paper investigates empirically the relationship between trade and FDI in services. Using bilateral data on US foreign affiliates' sales and trade as well as data on barriers to FDI, the relationship is investigated using different panel techniques, including fixed effects and pseudo-maximum-likelihood techniques. As a first step, bilateral exports are explained by foreign affiliates' sales. Then, in order to control for endogeneity, a cross-price elasticity approach is used, in which exports are explained by the cost of investing abroad. The paper additionally investigates whether the relationship in services differs from that in goods, whether it depends on the motivations for FDI and varies across services. The main findings indicate a robust complementary relationship between trade and FDI in services, which is higher than that found in the goods case and mainly related to the horizontal type of FDI as well as to 'other private services'.

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File URL: http://www.wiiw.ac.at/trade-in-services-cross-border-trade-vs-commercial-presence-evidence-of-complementarity-dlp-2027.pdf
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Paper provided by The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw in its series wiiw Working Papers with number 59.

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Length: 42 pages including 14 Tables and 5 Figures
Date of creation: Nov 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published as wiiw Working Paper
Handle: RePEc:wii:wpaper:59
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  1. Blonigen, Bruce A., 2001. "In search of substitution between foreign production and exports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 81-104, February.
  2. Carolina Lennon, 2008. "Trade in services and trade in goods: differences and complementarities," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586223, HAL.
  3. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 8079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2008. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 37-48, February.
  5. Langhammer, Rolf J., 2005. "The EU offer of service trade liberalization in the Doha Round : evidence of a not-yet-perfect customs union," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3509, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  6. Donghui Li & Fariborz Moshirian & Ah-Boon Sim, 2003. "The Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Insurance Services," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 70(2), pages 269-287.
  7. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2001. "The growth of world trade: tariffs, transport costs, and income similarity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 1-27, February.
  8. Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan & Szeidl, Adam, 2006. "Optimal integration strategies for the multinational firm," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 216-238, September.
  9. Amiti, Mary & Wakelin, Katharine, 2003. "Investment liberalization and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 101-126, October.
  10. Carolina Lennon, 2009. "Trade in Services and Trade in Goods: Differences and Complementarities," wiiw Working Papers 53, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  11. Keith Head & John Ries, 2004. "Exporting and FDI as Alternative Strategies," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 409-423, Autumn.
  12. Gootiiz, Batshur & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2009. "Services in Doha : what's on the table ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4903, The World Bank.
  13. Carmen Fillat-Castejón & Joseph F. Francois & Julia Wörz, 2009. "Cross-Border Trade and FDI in Services," wiiw Working Papers 50, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  14. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Moshirian, Fariborz & Li, Donghui & Sim, Ah-Boon, 2005. "Intra-industry trade in financial services," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1090-1107, November.
  16. Lipsey, Robert E & Weiss, Merle Yahr, 1981. "Foreign Production and Exports in Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 488-94, November.
  17. Rupa Chanda, 2006. "Inter-modal Linkages in Services Trade," OECD Trade Policy Papers 30, OECD Publishing.
  18. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2001. "Overseas Investment and Firm Exports," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 108-22, February.
  19. Clausing, Kimberly A, 2000. "Does Multinational Activity Displace Trade?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(2), pages 190-205, April.
  20. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2007. "FDI versus exports: Evidence from German banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 805-826, March.
  21. Caroline Freund & Diana Weinhold, 2002. "The Internet and International Trade in Services," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 236-240, May.
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