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Outward FDI, merchandise and services trade: evidence from Singapore

  • Wong, Koi Nyen
  • Goh, Soo Khoon

This paper aims to explore the causality pattern between OFDI and major external trade components (i.e. exports and imports of merchandise as well as services) using Singapore as a case, since it is one of the largest outward investors in the Asian region, and is overtly trade-dependent. The findings reveal that there is evidence of OFDI-led trade hypothesis, particularly, merchandise exports and imports, an indication for OFDI to open up important channels for intra-firm trade activities, home country sourcing and backward integration. However, there is no evidence of causality relationships between Singapore’s OFDI and services trade because the nature of services is mainly to provide market presence in the consuming country. As such, Singaporean multinationals are likely to outsource their services either from the host country services sector or their own services-supporting subsidiaries that have been relocated abroad. The present study provides implications for policy formulation on strengthening the OFDI-services trade linkages.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35377.

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Date of creation: Jul 2011
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35377
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  11. Goh, Soo Khoon & Wong, Koi Nyen, 2011. "Malaysia's outward FDI: The effects of market size and government policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 497-510, May.
  12. Ellingsen, Gaute & Likumahuwa, Winfried & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2006. "Outward FDI by Singapore : a different animal?," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3947, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  13. Bruce A. Blonigen, 1999. "In Search of Substitution Between Foreign Production and Exports," NBER Working Papers 7154, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  16. Ma, Yue & Morikawa, Koichiro & Shone, Ronald, 2000. "A macroeconomic model of direct investment in foreign affiliates of Japanese firms," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 311-335, December.
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