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Distance, production, virtual trade and growth: A note


  • Mandal, Biswajit


This paper argues that distance is not necessarily harmful to trade. It is shown that there may be an increase in the production and volume of trade if time zones of the trading nations are non-overlapping. This implies a positive effect of distance on the volume of trade in general and virtual trade in particular. It is also shown that exploitation of time zone differences raises welfare and ensures capital accumulation. The paper builds on the emerging literature on time zones and pure theory of international trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Mandal, Biswajit, 2015. "Distance, production, virtual trade and growth: A note," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-12.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifweej:20151

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
    2. Alan V. Deardorff, 2014. "Local comparative advantage: Trade costs and the pattern of trade," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 10(1), pages 9-35, March.
    3. Fink, Carsten & Mattoo, Aaditya & Neagu, Ileana Cristina, 2005. "Assessing the impact of communication costs on international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 428-445, December.
    4. Toru Kikuchi & Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2013. "Trade with Time Zone Differences: Factor Market Implications," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 699-711, November.
    5. Edward Anderson, 2014. "Time differences, communication and trade: longitude matters II," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(2), pages 337-369, May.
    6. Falvey, Rodney E, 1976. "Transport Costs in the Pure Theory of International Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 86(343), pages 536-550, September.
    7. James H. Cassing, 1978. "Transport Costs in International Trade Theory: A Comparison with the Analysis of Nontraded Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 92(4), pages 535-550.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2017. "Virtual trade between separated time zones and growth," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 13(2), pages 171-183, June.
    2. Mandal, Biswajit & Prasad, Alaka Shree & Bhattacharjee, Prasun, 2017. "A Review of Literature on Time Zone Difference and Trade," MPRA Paper 78779, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Trade; time zone;

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade


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