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Analysis of the Determinants of Income and Income Gap between Urban and Rural China

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  • Su, Biwei

    (Korea University)

  • Heshmati, Almas

    (Jönköping University, Sogang University)

Abstract

This paper studies on the determinants of income and urban-rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban-rural income inequality in China. OLS, conditional quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households' income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at different percentiles of the income distribution. In urban areas, education is more valued for high income earners, while for rural areas, specialized or tertiary education are more beneficial for the poorer households. Among all occupational types, farm activities show much lower returns than other types; and this is more evident for individuals at the left tail of the income distribution. We also find that for the sampled provinces, urban-rural income gap increases from the year of 2000 to 2004 but the gap decreases from 2004 to 2009. The income gap can be largely explained by the individuals' attributes, especially by level of education and type of occupation.

Suggested Citation

  • Su, Biwei & Heshmati, Almas, 2013. "Analysis of the Determinants of Income and Income Gap between Urban and Rural China," IZA Discussion Papers 7162, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7162
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    Cited by:

    1. Joanna Landmesser, 2016. "Decomposition of differences In income distributions Using quantile regression," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(2), pages 331-348, June.
    2. Almas Heshmati & Biwei Su & Seon-Ae Kim, 2015. "Measurement and Analysis of Well-Being in Developed Regions in China," China Economic Policy Review (CEPR), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 4(01), pages 1-22, June.
    3. Jianxu Liu & Xiaoqing Li & Shutong Liu & Sanzidur Rahman & Songsak Sriboonchitta, 2022. "Addressing Rural–Urban Income Gap in China through Farmers’ Education and Agricultural Productivity Growth via Mediation and Interaction Effects," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 12(11), pages 1-23, November.
    4. Liaqat Ali & Muhammad Kamran Naqi Khan & Habib Ahmad, 2020. "Education of the Head and Financial Vulnerability of Households: Evidence from a Household’s Survey Data in Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 147(2), pages 439-463, January.
    5. Hyunjoon Park & Jaesung Choi, 2015. "Long-term trends in living alone among Korean adults: Age, gender, and educational differences," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 32(43), pages 1177-1208.
    6. Hassine, Nadia Belhaj, 2015. "Economic Inequality in the Arab Region," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 532-556.
    7. Al Mamun (a) and MD. Arfanuzzaman (b), 2020. "The Effects of Human Capital and Social Factors on the Household Income of Bangladesh: An Econometric Analysis," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 45(3), pages 29-49, September.
    8. Gemechis Teshome & Leta Sera & Amsalu Dachito, 2021. "Determinants of income inequality among urban households in Ethiopia: a case of Nekemte Town," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(11), pages 1-21, November.
    9. Ferhat CITAK & Patricia A. DUFFY, 2020. "The causal effect of education on poverty: evidence from Turkey," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 11, pages 251-265, December.
    10. Peng Bin & Andrea Fracasso, 2017. "Regional Consumption Inequality in China: An Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition at the Prefectural Level," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(3), pages 459-486, September.
    11. Zelinsky, Tomas, 2014. "Chudoba a deprivácia na Slovensku: Metodologické aspekty a empíria [Poverty and Deprivation in Slovakia: Methodological Aspects and Empirics]," MPRA Paper 76868, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Lamazi & Syamsurijal A.K & NurlinaTarmizi & Tatang A.M Sariman, 2016. "Analysis Factors That Influence Wage Disparity Between Female Workers In Urban And Rural Areas In South Sumatera," Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, Eurasian Publications, vol. 4(3), pages 54-63.
    13. Yang, Tingru & Li, Hui & Zhang, Lingyue & Chen, Tianqi, 2022. "The impact of city gas on income inequality in China: A regional heterogeneity analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C).
    14. Joanna Małgorzata Landmesser, 2016. "Decomposition Of Differences In Income Distributions Using Quantile Regression," Statistics in Transition New Series, Polish Statistical Association, vol. 17(2), pages 331-348, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    quantile regression; Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition; urban-rural income gap; CHNS household data; China;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models

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