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Inequality in Vietnamese Urban-Rural Living Standards, 1993-2006

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  • Booth, Alison L
  • Le, Huong Thu

Abstract

Using data from five waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, we find evidence of significant urban-rural expenditure inequality. Urban-rural inequality increased dramatically from 1993 to 1998, and peaked in 2002 before reducing slightly in 2004, and significantly in 2006. The urban-rural gap also monotonically increases across the expenditure distribution. We use a variant of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, applied to the unconditional quantile regression method of Firpo, Fortin and Lemieux (2009), to explain the components of the per capita expenditure differentials between urban and rural households at selected quantiles of the distribution. We also compare these estimates with those at mean obtained by OLS. Our results show a number of factors contributing significantly to the high urban-rural gap. These include inter-group differences in education, household demographic structure, industrial structure and their related returns. Adjusting the average characteristics of rural households to those of urban households will reduce about a half of the overall urban-rural expenditure gap. A significant part of the remaining unexplained component lies in the intercept differences; that is, the inter-group differences in other factors not captured in the model that favor urban households.

Suggested Citation

  • Booth, Alison L & Le, Huong Thu, 2010. "Inequality in Vietnamese Urban-Rural Living Standards, 1993-2006," CEPR Discussion Papers 7918, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7918
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00838 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Joanna Landmesser, 2016. "Decomposition of differences In income distributions Using quantile regression," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(2), pages 331-348, June.
    3. Thanh Bui & Katsushi S. Imai, 2017. "Determinants of Rural-urban Inequality in Vietnam: Detailed Decomposition Analyses Based on Unconditional Quantile Regressions," Discussion Paper Series DP2017-01, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Jun 2017.
    4. Zheng Fang & Chris Sakellariou, 2016. "Social Insurance, Income and Subjective Well-Being of Rural Migrants in China—An Application of Unconditional Quantile Regression," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 1635-1657, August.
    5. Azam, Mehtabul, 2017. "Are Urban-Rural Welfare Differences Growing in India?," IZA Discussion Papers 11174, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Raymundo Campos & Gerardo Esquivel & Nora Lustig, 2012. "The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Mexico, 1989–2010," Working Papers 267, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    7. repec:exl:29stat:v:17:y:2016:i:2:p:331-348 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Ha Trong Nguyen, 2015. "The evolution of the gender test score gap through seventh grade: New insights from Australia using quantile regression and decomposition," Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre Working Paper series WP1507, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School.
    9. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-10 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Oaxaca decomposition; unconditional quantile regression; urban-rural inequality; Vietnam;

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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