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Performance Pay and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Spain

Author

Listed:
  • de la Rica, Sara

    () (University of the Basque Country)

  • Dolado, Juan J.

    () (European University Institute)

  • Vegas, Raquel

    () (FEDEA, Madrid)

Abstract

This paper uses detailed information from a large wage survey in 2006 to analyze the gender wage gap in the performance-pay (PP) component of total hourly wages and its contribution to the overall gender gap in Spain. Under the assumption that PP is determined in a more competitive fashion than the other wage components, one would expect, in principle, to find a low gender gap in PP. However, this is not what we find. After controlling for observable differences in individual and job characteristics as well as for non random selection, the adjusted gender gap in PP reaches 26 log points, displaying a "glass ceiling" pattern. After examining several alternative theories that could rationalize these findings, we conjecture that monopsonistic features, possibly related to women's lower labour mobility due to housework, fit better with our results than other theories related to occupational segregation.

Suggested Citation

  • de la Rica, Sara & Dolado, Juan J. & Vegas, Raquel, 2010. "Performance Pay and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 5032, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5032
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. DiNardo, John & Fortin, Nicole M & Lemieux, Thomas, 1996. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1001-1044, September.
    2. Ewing, Bradley T., 1996. "Wages and performance-based pay: Evidence from the NLSY," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 241-246, May.
    3. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 751-776, July.
    4. Sara de la Rica & Juan José Dolado & Cecilia García-Peñalosa, 2008. "On gender gaps and self-fulfilling expectations: Theory, policies and some empirical evidence," Working Papers 2008-24, FEDEA.
    5. Javier Gardeazabal & Arantza Ugidos, 2004. "More on Identification in Detailed Wage Decompositions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 1034-1036, November.
    6. Dolado, Juan José & Jimeno, Juan F. & Felgueroso, Florentino, 1997. "Minimum wages, collective bargaining and wage dispersion : the spanish case," UC3M Working papers. Economics 10496, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    7. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
    8. Card, David, 1996. "The Effect of Unions on the Structure of Wages: A Longitudinal Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 957-979, July.
    9. Beaudry, Paul & DiNardo, John, 1991. "The Effect of Implicit Contracts on the Movement of Wages over the Business Cycle: Evidence from Micro Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 665-688, August.
    10. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
    11. Amuedo-Dorantes Catalina & De la Rica Sara, 2006. "The Role of Segregation and Pay Structure on the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data for Spain," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-34, April.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Buenas y malas prácticas en la negociación colectiva
      by Florentino Felgueroso in Nada Es Gratis on 2011-03-16 13:13:54

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Chiang, Hui-Yu & Ohtake, Fumio, 2014. "Performance-pay and the gender wage gap in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 71-88.
    2. Thisse, Jacques-François & Toulemonde, Eric, 2010. "The Distribution of Earnings under Monopsonistic/polistic Competition," IZA Discussion Papers 5136, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. K. Sommerfeld, 2013. "Higher and higher? Performance pay and wage inequality in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(30), pages 4236-4247, October.
    4. Inés P. Murillo & Hipólito Simón, 2014. "La Gran Recesión y el diferencial salarial por género en España," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 208(1), pages 39-76, March.
    5. Ghazala Azmat & Rosa Ferrer Zarzuela, 2012. "Gender gaps in performance: Evidence from young lawyers," Economics Working Papers 1300, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2015.
    6. Matano, Alessia & Naticchioni, Paolo, 2013. "Rent sharing as a driver of the glass ceiling effect," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 55-59.
    7. repec:spr:jlabre:v:38:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s12122-017-9256-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Juin-jen Chang & Chia-ying Liu & Hsiao-wen Hung, 2013. "Does Performance-Based Compensation Boost Economic Growth or Lead to More Income Inequality?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 89(284), pages 72-82, March.
    9. Mari Kangasniemi & Antti Kauhanen, 2013. "Performance-related pay and gender wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(36), pages 5131-5143, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gaps; selection bias; quantile regressions; performance pay;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
    • J42 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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