Tournament Incentives in the Field: Gender Differences in the Workplace
We ran a field experiment in a Dutch retail chain consisting of 128 stores. In a random sample of these stores, we introduced short-term sales competitions among subsets of stores. We find that sales competitions have a large effect on sales growth, but only in stores where the store's manager and a large fraction of the employees have the same gender. Remarkably, results are alike for sales competitions with and without monetary rewards, suggesting a high symbolic value of winning a tournament. Lastly, despite the substantial variation in team size, we find no evidence for free-riding.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Uri Gneezy & Aldo Rustichini, 2004.
"Gender and Competition at a Young Age,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 377-381, May.
- Green, Jerry R & Stokey, Nancy L, 1983.
"A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 349-64, June.
- Green, Jerry & Stokey, Nancy, 1983. "A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts," Scholarly Articles 3203644, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Jerry R. Green & Nancy L. Stokey, 1982. "A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts," NBER Working Papers 0840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dargnies, Marie-Pierre, 2011. "Men too sometimes shy away from competition: The case of team competition," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Market Behavior SP II 2011-201, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
- Polachek, Solomon William, 1981. "Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 60-69, February.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000.
"The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs,"
NBER Working Papers
7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bruno S. Frey & Susanne Neckermann, 2008.
"Awards - A View from Psychological Economics,"
CREMA Working Paper Series
2008-02, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
- Bruno S. Frey & Susanne Neckermann, 2008. "Awards: A view from psychological economics," IEW - Working Papers 357, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Bruno S. Frey & Susanne Neckermann, 2008. "Awards - A View From Psychological Economics," CREMA Working Paper Series 2008-15, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
- Kosfeld, Michael & Neckermann, Susanne, 2010.
"Getting More Work for Nothing? Symbolic Awards and Worker Performance,"
IZA Discussion Papers
5040, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Michael Kosfeld & Susanne Neckermann, 2011. "Getting More Work for Nothing? Symbolic Awards and Worker Performance," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 86-99, August.
- Emmanuelle Auriol & Régis Renault, 2007.
"Status and Incentives,"
THEMA Working Papers
2007-01, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- Auriol, Emmanuelle & Renault, Régis, 2007. "Status and Incentives," IDEI Working Papers 451, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Renault, Régis & Auriol, Emmanuelle, 2008. "Status and incentives," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/12479, Paris Dauphine University.
- Ray Reagans, 2005. "Preferences, Identity, and Competition: Predicting Tie Strength from Demographic Data," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(9), pages 1374-1383, September.
- Ghazala Azmat & Nagore Iriberri, 2009.
"The Importance of Relative Performance Feedback Information: Evidence from a Natural Experiment using High School Students,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0915, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Azmat, Ghazala & Iriberri, Nagore, 2010. "The importance of relative performance feedback information: Evidence from a natural experiment using high school students," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(7-8), pages 435-452, August.
- Ghazala Azmat & Nagore Iriberri, 2009. "The importance of relative performance feedback information: evidence from a natural experiment using high school students," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28520, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Ghazala Azmat and Nagore Iriberri, 2010. "The Importance of Relative Performance Feedback Information: Evidence from a Natural Experiment using High School Students," Working Papers 444, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Ghazala Azmat & Nagore Iriberri, 2009. "The importance of relative performance feedback information: Evidence from a natural experiment using high school students," Economics Working Papers 1148, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Mar 2010.
- Barry J. Nalebuff & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1983. "Prices and Incentives: Towards a General Theory of Compensation and Competition," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(1), pages 21-43, Spring.
- David Reiley & John List, 2008.
Artefactual Field Experiments
00091, The Field Experiments Website.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
- Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1979.
"Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts,"
NBER Working Papers
0401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jordi Blanes i Vidal & Mareike Nossol, 2011. "Tournaments Without Prizes: Evidence from Personnel Records," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(10), pages 1721-1736, October.
- Glenn W. Harrison & Morten I. Lau & E. Elisabet Rutström, 2007.
"Estimating Risk Attitudes in Denmark: A Field Experiment,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 109(2), pages 341-368, 06.
- Elisabet Rutstrom & Glenn Harrison & Morten Lau, 2004. "Estimating risk attitudes in denmark: A field experiment," Artefactual Field Experiments 00059, The Field Experiments Website.
- Benny Moldovanu & Aner Sela & Xianwen Shi, 2006.
"Contests For Status,"
0604, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
- Moldovanu, Benny & Sela, Aner & Shi, Xianwen, 2005. "Contests for Status," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 139, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- repec:oup:qjecon:v:122:y:2007:i:3:p:1067-1101 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4395. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.