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Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes of Disabled Men Before and After the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990


  • Choe, Chung



The study compares the labor market experience of men with disabilities before and after the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The handful of studies that have focused on the wage impact of disabilities have either not fully incorporated the probability of employment into the analysis or have not correctly decomposed the wage differences in light of selectivity corrections. After estimating a two-stage model of the probability of employment followed by a wage equation for men with and without disabilities, I use Newman and Oaxaca?s (2004) method to correctly decompose the distributions. In addition, I also perform a similar analysis to explain the differentials in employment rates between the non-disabled and disabled. The analyses are performed for samples before and after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The results from studies of the Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP) of 1984, 1990, 1996 and 2001 indicate that the employment and wage gaps between the disabled and the non-disabled have risen sharply over time, both before and after the passage of the ADA. Most of the rise prior to the ADA was attributable to arise in differences that cannot be explained with measurable factors. Nearly all of the rise in the gaps in the 1990s, however, is attributable to factors that can be measured. The unexplained differential has held relatively constant during that period.

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  • Choe, Chung, 2009. "Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes of Disabled Men Before and After the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990," IRISS Working Paper Series 2009-07, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
  • Handle: RePEc:irs:iriswp:2009-07

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael Ransom & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2005. "Intrafirm Mobility and Sex Differences in Pay," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 219-237, January.
    2. Edward J. Schumacher & Marjorie Baldwin, 2000. "The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: Evidence from the SIPP," JCPR Working Papers 178, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    3. Michael Baker & Mark Stabile & Catherine Deri, 2004. "What Do Self-Reported, Objective, Measures of Health Measure?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
    4. Thomas DeLeire, 2001. "Changes in Wage Discrimination against People with Disabilities: 1984-93," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 144-158.
    5. Even, William E. & Macpherson, David A., 1990. "Plant size and the decline of unionism," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 393-398, April.
    6. David Madden, 2004. "Labour market discrimination on the basis of health: an application to UK data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(5), pages 421-442.
    7. John Ermisch & Robert Wright, 1994. "Interpretation of negative sample selection effects in wage offer equations," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(11), pages 187-189.
    8. Tracy Regan & Ronald Oaxaca, 2009. "Work experience as a source of specification error in earnings models: implications for gender wage decompositions," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(2), pages 463-499, April.
    9. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    10. Marjorie L. Baldwin & William G. Johnson, 2000. "Labor Market Discrimination Against Men with Disabilities in the Year of the ADA," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 548-566, January.
    11. Pencavel, John, 1987. "Labor supply of men: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-102 Elsevier.
    12. Kidd, Michael P. & Sloane, Peter J. & Ferko, Ivan, 2000. "Disability and the labour market: an analysis of British males," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 961-981, November.
    13. Sven Wilson, 2001. "Work and the accommodation of chronic illness: A re-examination of the health-labour supply relationship," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(9), pages 1139-1156.
    14. Ronald L. Oaxaca & Michael R. Ransom, 1999. "Identification in Detailed Wage Decompositions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 154-157, February.
    15. Thomas DeLeire, 2000. "The Wage and Employment Effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 693-715.
    16. John Bound, 1991. "Self-Reported Versus Objective Measures of Health in Retirement Models," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(1), pages 106-138.
    17. David M. Cutler & Mary Beth Landrum & Kate A. Stewart, 2009. "How Do The Better Educated Do It? Socioeconomic Status and the Ability to Cope With Underlying Impairment," NBER Chapters,in: Developments in the Economics of Aging, pages 203-248 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Melanie K. Jones & Paul L. Latreille & Peter J. Sloane, 2006. "Disability, gender, and the British labour market," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 407-449, July.
    19. Shoshana Neuman & Ronald Oaxaca, 2004. "Wage Decompositions with Selectivity-Corrected Wage Equations: A Methodological Note," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 2(1), pages 3-10, April.
    20. Baldwin, Marjorie & Johnson, William G, 1992. "Estimating the Employment Effects of Wage Discrimination," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 446-455, August.
    21. Moon, Sangho & Shin, Jaeun, 2006. "The effect of the Americans with Disabilities Act on economic well-being of men with disabilities," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 266-276, May.
    22. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
    23. repec:mpr:mprres:4999 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Marjorie Baldwin & William G. Johnson, 1994. "Labor Market Discrimination against Men with Disabilities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(1), pages 1-19.
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    Cited by:

    1. Philippe Van Kerm, 2013. "Generalized measures of wage differentials," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 465-482, August.
    2. Verme, Paolo, 2009. "Happiness, Deprivation and the Alter Ego," IRISS Working Paper Series 2009-18, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.

    More about this item


    Discrimination ; ADA;

    JEL classification:

    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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