Does Geography Explain Differences in Economic Growth in Peru?
In Peru, a country with an astonishing variety of different ecological areas, including 84 different climate zones and landscapes, with rainforests, high mountain ranges and dry deserts, the geographical context may not be all that matters, but it could be very significant in explaining regional variations in income and welfare. The major question this paper tries to answer is: what role do geographic variables, both natural and manmade, play in explaining per capita expenditure differentials across regions within Peru? How have these influences changed over time, through what channels have they been transmitted, and has access to private and public assets compensated for the effects of an adverse geography? We have shown that what seem to be sizable geographic differences in living standards in Peru can be almost fully explained when one takes into account the spatial concentration of households with readily observable non-geographic characteristics, in particular public and private assets. In other words, the same observationally equivalent household has a similar expenditure level in one place as another with different geographic characteristics such as altitude or temperature. This does not mean, however that geography is not important but that its influence on expenditure level and growth differential comes about through a spatially uneven provision of public infrastructure. Furthermore, when we measured the expected gain (or loss) in consumption from living in one geographic region (i. e. , coast) as opposed to living in another (i. e. , highlands), we found that most of the difference in log per-capita expenditure between the highland and the coast can be accounted for by the differences in infrastructure endowments and private assets. This could be an indication that the availability of infrastructure could be limited by the geography and therefore the more adverse geographic regions are the ones with less access to public infrastructure. It is important to note that there appear to be non-geographic, spatially correlated, omitted variables that need to be taken into account in our expenditure growth model. Therefore policy programs that use regional targeting do have a rationale even if geographic variables do not explain the bulk of the difference in regional growth, once we have taken into account differentials in access to private and public assets.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2000|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1300 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20577|
Web page: http://www.iadb.org/res
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L. Glaeser, 2002.
"Geographic Concentration As A Dynamic Process,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 193-204, May.
- Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward Glaeser, 1997. "Geographic Concentration as a Dynamic Process," NBER Working Papers 6270, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L Glaeser, 1998. "Geographic Concentration as a Dynamic Process," Working Papers 98-3, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Moreno, Ramon & Trehan, Bharat, 1997. "Location and the Growth of Nations," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 399-418, December.
- Ramon Moreno & Bharat Trehan, 1997. "Location and the growth of nations," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 97-02, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Knight, John & Song, Lina, 1993. "The Spatial Contribution to Income Inequality in Rural China," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(2), pages 195-213, June.
- Knight, J. & Song, L., 1990. "The Spatial Contribution To Income Inequality In Rural China," Economics Series Working Papers 99106, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Almas Heshmati & Subal C. Kumbhakar, 1997. "Estimation Of Technical Efficiency In Swedish Crop Farms: A Pseudo Panel Data Approach," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1-3), pages 22-37.
- Nass, Clifford & Garfinkle, David, 1992. "Localized autocorrelation diagnostic statistic (LADS) for spatial models : Conceptualization, utilization, and computation," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 333-346, September.
- Davis, Donald R. & Weinstein, David E., 1999. "Economic geography and regional production structure: An empirical investigation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 379-407, February.
- Donald R. Davis & David E. Weinstein, 1997. "Economic Geography and Reginal Production Structure: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 6093, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Donald R. Davis & David E. Weinstein, 1997. "Economic Geography and Regional Production Structure: An Empirical Investigation," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1802, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Donald R. Davis & David E. Weinstein, 1998. "Economic geography and regional production structure: an empirical investigation," Staff Reports 40, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Escobal, Javier & Saavedra, Jaime & Torero, Máximo, 1999. "Los activos de los pobres en el Perú," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(263), pages 619-659, Julio-sep.
- Javier Escobal & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví & Máximo Torero, 1999. "Los activos de los pobres en el Perú," Research Department Publications 3059, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Javier Escobal & Jaime Saavedra & Máximo Torero, 2000. "Los activos de los pobres en el Perú," Documentos de Investigación dt26, Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE).
- Javier Escobal & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví & Máximo Torero, 1999. "Los activos de los pobres en el Perú," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 7601, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila & Acs, Zoltan, 1997. "Local Geographic Spillovers between University Research and High Technology Innovations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 422-448, November.
- Ravallion, Martin & Jalan, Jyotsna, 1996. "Growth divergence due to spatial externalities," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 227-232, November.
- Hentschel, Jesko & Lanjouw, Jean Olson & Lanjouw, Peter & Poggi, Javier, 1998. "Combining census and survey data to study spatial dimensions of poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1928, The World Bank.
- L Hordijk & P Nijkamp, 1977. "Dynamic Models of Spatial Autocorrelation," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 9(5), pages 505-519, May.
- L Hordijk & P Nijkamp, 1977. "Dynamic models of spatial autocorrelation," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 9(5), pages 505-519, May.
- John Luke Gallup & Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew D. Mellinger, 1998. "Geography and Economic Development," NBER Working Papers 6849, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1997. "Poor areas, or only poor people?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1798, The World Bank.
- Sukkoo Kim, 1997. "Regions, Resources, and Economic Geography: Sources of U.S. Regional Comparative Advantage, 1880-1987," NBER Working Papers 6322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jyotsna Jalan & Martin Ravallion, 1998. "Geographic Poverty Traps?," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 86, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- John Luke Gallup & Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew D. Mellinger, 1998. "Geography and Economic Development," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1856, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)