Reserve Requirements on Sovereign Debt in the Presence of Moral Hazard -- on Debtors or Creditors?
This paper characterizes the effects of reserve requirements on financial loans in the presence of moral hazard on the lender side (i.e., the anticipation that the taxpayer will bailout lending banks if large default will occur) and sovereign risk on the borrower side. The impacts of such reserve requirements on the equilibrium degree of default risk and borrowing are analyzed, and their welfare implications for both the borrowing and the lending nations discussed. More generous bailouts financed by the high income block encourage borrowing and increase the probability of default. We show that the introduction of a reserve requirement in either country reduces the risk of default and raises the welfare of both the high income block and the emerging market economies. In these circumstances, the lender's optimal reserve requirement is shown to increase with the expected bailout. Such a policy induces the lender to internalize the expected tax payer cost of the bailout. Thus a more generous bailout that is accompanied by an optimal adjustment in the lender's reserve requirements exactly neutralizes its effects on welfare, leaving welfare in both countries unchanged. Unlike the case of the lender, the effect of the more generous bailout on the borrower's optimal reserve requirement is ambiguous. The imposition of the reserve requirement may also improve the availability of information about the debt exposure of the emerging market economies, which by itself will reduce the optimal lender's reserve requirements, and may prevent drying up' the market for sovereign debt.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
|Date of creation:||Feb 1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.econ.washington.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Helpman, Elhanan, 1989.
"The Simple Analytics of Debt-Equity Swaps,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 440-51, June.
- Robert M. Townsend, 1979.
"Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification,"
45, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Townsend, Robert M., 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 265-293, October.
- Eaton, Jonathan & Gersovitz, Mark & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1986.
"The pure theory of country risk,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 481-513, June.
- Miller, Marcus & Zhang, Lei, 2000.
"Sovereign Liquidity Crises: The Strategic Case for a Payments Standstill,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(460), pages 335-62, January.
- Marcus Miller & Lei Zhang, 1999. "Sovereign Liquidity Crisis: The Strategic Case for a Payments Standstill," CSGR Working papers series 35/99, Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR), University of Warwick.
- Marcus H. Miller & Lei Zhang, 1999. "Sovereign Liquidity Crisis: The Strategic Case for A Payments Standstill," Working Paper Series WP99-8, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Miller, Marcus & Zhang, Lei, 1998. "Sovereign Liquidity Crises: the Strategic Case for a Payments Standstill," CEPR Discussion Papers 1820, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Aizenman, Joshua, 1998.
"Volatility and the welfare costs of financial market integration,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1974, The World Bank.
- Pierre-Richard Agenor & Joshua Aizenman, 1998. "Volatility and the Welfare Costs of Financial Market Integration," NBER Working Papers 6782, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bhandari, Jagdeep S. & Ul Haque, Nadeem & Turnovsky, Stephen J., 1989. "Growth, debt, and sovereign risk in a small, open economy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 260, The World Bank.
- Jeremy A.Rogoff Bulow & Kenneth, 1986.
"A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt,"
University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State
43, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth S., 1989. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," Scholarly Articles 12491028, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Jeremy I. Bulow & Kenneth Rogoff, 1986. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," NBER Working Papers 2088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 1998.
"Emerging Market Crises: An Asset Markets Perspective,"
98-18, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Arvind Krishnamurthy & Ricardo J. Caballero, 1999. "Emerging Markets Crisis: An Asset Markets Perspective," IMF Working Papers 99/129, International Monetary Fund.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 1998. "Emerging Market Crises: An Asset Markets Perspective," NBER Working Papers 6843, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 1999. "Emerging Market Crises: An Asset Markets Perspective," Working papers 99-23, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000.
"Controls on capital inflows: do they work?,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, June.
- Boyd, John H & Smith, Bruce D, 1994. "How Good Are Standard Debt Contracts? Stochastic versus Nonstochastic Monitoring in a Costly State Verification Environment," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(4), pages 539-61, October.
- Michael P. Dooley, 1997.
"A Model of Crises in Emerging Markets,"
NBER Working Papers
6300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kletzer, Kenneth M, 1984. "Asymmetries of Information and LDC Borrowing with Sovereign Risk," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 287-307, June.
- Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1991.
"A quality and risk-adjusted cost function for banks: evidence on the " too-big-to-fail" doctrine,"
91-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, . "A Quality and Risk-Adjusted Cost Function for Banks: Evidence on the "Too-Big-To-Fail" Doctrine," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 25-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
- McKinnon, Ronald I., 1982. "The order of economic liberalization: Lessons from Chile and Argentina," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 159-186, January.
- Aizenman, Joshua, 1989. "Country Risk, Incomplete Information and Taxes on International Borrowing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(394), pages 147-61, March.
- Buiter, Willem H & Sibert, Anne C, 1999. "UDROP: A Contribution to the New International Financial Architecture," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(2), pages 227-47, July.
- Jagdeep S. Bhandari & Nadeem Ul Haque & Stephen J. Turnovsky, 1990. "Growth, External Debt, and Sovereign Risk in a Small Open Economy," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(2), pages 388-417, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fth:washer:0044. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.