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Declining Trends In The Real Interest Rate And Inflation: The Role Of Aging

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  • Shigeru Fujita
  • Ippei Fujiwara

Abstract

This paper explores a causal link between aging of the labor force and declining trends in the real interest rate and inflation in Japan. We develop a New Keynesian search/matching model that features heterogeneities in age and firm-specific skills. Using the model, we examine the long-run implications of the sharp drop in labor force entry in the 1970s. We show that the changes in the demographic structure induce significant low-frequency movements in per-capita consumption growth and the real interest rate. They also lead to similar movements in the inflation rate when the monetary policy follows the standard Taylor rule, failing to recognize the timevarying nature of the natural rate of interest. The model suggests that aging of the labor force accounts for roughly 40% of the declines in the real interest rate observed between the 1980s and 2000s in Japan.

Suggested Citation

  • Shigeru Fujita & Ippei Fujiwara, 2016. "Declining Trends In The Real Interest Rate And Inflation: The Role Of Aging," Working Papers 16-29, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedpwp:16-29
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Declining Trends in the Real Interest Rate and Inflation: Role of aging
      by Christian Zimmermann in NEP-DGE blog on 2016-01-13 21:54:25

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    Cited by:

    1. Sasaki, Yuri & Yoshida, Yushi, 2018. "Decomposition of Japan's trade balance," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 507-537.
    2. Sudo, Nao & Takizuka, Yasutaka, 2020. "Population Aging And The Real Interest Rate In The Last And Next 50 Years: A Tale Told By An Overlapping Generations Model," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(8), pages 2060-2103, December.
    3. Dantas Guimarães, Silvana & Ferreira Tiryaki, Gisele, 2020. "The impact of population aging on business cycles volatility: International evidence," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 17(C).
    4. Beyer,Robert Carl Michael & Milivojevic,Lazar, 2020. "Dynamics and Synchronization of Global Equilibrium Interest Rates," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9489, The World Bank.
    5. Gaofeng Han, 2020. "Structural transformation and its implications for the Chinese economy," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(3), pages 339-383, August.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    aging; natural rate; deflation; Japan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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