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Can demography affect inflation and monetary policy?

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  • Mikael Juselius
  • Elod Takats

Abstract

Several countries are concurrently experiencing historically low inflation rates and ageing populations. Is there a connection, as recently suggested by some senior central bankers? We undertake a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in a panel of 22 countries over the 1955–2010 period. We find a stable and significant correlation between demography and low-frequency inflation. In particular, a larger share of dependents (ie young and old) is correlated with higher inflation, while a larger share of working age cohorts is correlated with lower inflation. The results are robust to different country samples, time periods, control variables and estimation techniques. We also find a significant, albeit unstable, relationship between demography and monetary policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Mikael Juselius & Elod Takats, 2015. "Can demography affect inflation and monetary policy?," BIS Working Papers 485, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:485
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. La démographie influence-t-elle l’inflation et la politique monétaire ?
      by Martin Anota in D'un champ l'autre on 2015-02-12 04:16:06

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    Cited by:

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    2. Ha-Hyun Jo & Minwoo Jang & Jaehyeok Kim, 2020. "How Population Age Distribution Affects Future Electricity Demand in Korea: Applying Population Polynomial Function," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(20), pages 1-17, October.
    3. Juselius, Mikael & Takáts, Előd, 2018. "The enduring link between demography and inflation," Research Discussion Papers 8/2018, Bank of Finland.
    4. Carvalho, Carlos & Ferrero, Andrea & Nechio, Fernanda, 2016. "Demographics and real interest rates: Inspecting the mechanism," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 208-226.
    5. Janet L. Yellen, 2017. "Inflation, uncertainty, and monetary policy," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 52(4), pages 194-207, October.
    6. Katagiri, Mitsuru & Konishi, Hideki & Ueda, Kozo, 2020. "Aging and deflation from a fiscal perspective," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 1-15.
    7. Nickel, Christiane & Bobeica, Elena & Lis, Eliza & Sun, Yiqiao, 2017. "Demographics and inflation," Working Paper Series 2006, European Central Bank.
    8. M. Deroose & A. Stevens, 2017. "Low inflation in the euro area : Causes and consequences," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue i, pages 111-125, June.
    9. Daniel Simons & Rosmy Jean Louis, 2018. "Monetary union in West Africa and business cycles synchronicity: New evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(10), pages 2828-2848, October.
    10. Santiago García-Verdú & Manuel Ramos-Francia, 2016. "On the costs of deflation: a consumption-based approach," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Inflation mechanisms, expectations and monetary policy, volume 89, pages 247-273, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Fedotenkov, Igor, 2015. "Population ageing and prices in an OLG model with money created by credits," MPRA Paper 66056, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Juan Carlos Berganza & Pedro del Río & Fructuoso Borrallo, 2016. "Determinants and implications of low global inflation rates," Occasional Papers 1608, Banco de España;Occasional Papers Homepage.
    13. Giuseppe Ferrero & Marco Gross & Stefano Neri, 2019. "On secular stagnation and low interest rates: Demography matters," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 262-278, December.
    14. Vymyatnina, Yulia V. (Вымятнина, Юлия В.) & Grishchenko, Vadim O. (Грищенко, Вадим О.) & Ostapenko, Vsevolod M. (Остапенко, Всеволод М.) & Ryazanov, Viktor T. (Рязанов, Виктор Т.), 2018. "Financial Instability and Economic Crises: Lessons from Minsky [Финансовая Нестабильность И Экономические Кризисы: Уроки Мински]," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 4, pages 20-41, August.
    15. FUJITA Shigeru & FUJIWARA Ippei, 2015. "Declining Trends in the Real Interest Rate and Inflation: Role of aging," Discussion papers 15140, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    16. Fedotenkov, Igor, 2018. "Population ageing and inflation with endogenous money creation," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 392-403.
    17. Zongwu Cai & Jiazi Chen & Linlin Niu, 2021. "A Semiparametric Model for Bond Pricing with Life Cycle Fundamental," Working Papers 2021-01-06, Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics (WISE), Xiamen University.
    18. Zongwu Cai & Jiazi Chen & Linlin Liu, 2021. "Bond Pricing and Life Cycle Fundamental," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 202102, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2021.
    19. Miriam Koomen & Laurence Wicht, 2020. "Demographics, pension systems, and the current account: an empirical assessment using the IMF current account model," Working Papers 2020-23, Swiss National Bank.
    20. Jakob de Haan & Marco Hoeberichts & Renske Maas & Federica Teppa, 2016. "Inflation in the euro area and why it matters," DNB Occasional Studies 1403, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    21. Biswajit Maitra, 2016. "Inflation Dynamics in India: Relative Role of Structural and Monetary Factors," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 14(2), pages 237-255, December.
    22. Gozluklu, Arie & Morin, Annaïg, 2019. "Stock vs. Bond yields and demographic fluctuations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).

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    Keywords

    demography; ageing; inflation; monetary policy;
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