IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedgfe/2012-21.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Arbitrage, liquidity and exit: the repo and federal funds markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis

Author

Listed:
  • Morten L. Bech
  • Elizabeth C. Klee
  • Viktors Stebunovs

Abstract

This paper examines the link between the federal funds and repo markets, before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis that began in August 2007. In particular, the paper investigates the initial transmission of monetary policy to closely related money markets, pricing of risk, and liquidity effects, and then shows how these could interact if the Federal Reserve removes the substantial amount of liquidity currently in the federal funds market. The results suggest that pass-through from the federal funds rate to the repo deteriorated somewhat during the zero lower bound period, likely due to limits to arbitrage and idiosyncratic market factors. In addition, during the early part of the crisis, the pricing of federal funds, which are unsecured loans, indicated a marked jump in perceived credit risk. Moreover, the liquidity effect for the federal funds rate, or the change in the federal funds rate associated with an exogenous change in reserve balances, weakened greatly with the increase in supply of these balances over the crisis, implying a non-linear demand for federal funds. Using these analyses, the paper then shows simulations of the dynamic effects and balance sheet mechanics of liquidity draining on the federal funds and repo rates--a tool that might be used in an exit strategy to tighten monetary policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Morten L. Bech & Elizabeth C. Klee & Viktors Stebunovs, 2012. "Arbitrage, liquidity and exit: the repo and federal funds markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2012-21
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2012/201221/201221abs.html
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2012/201221/201221pap.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Niall Coffey & Warren B. Hrung & Asani Sarkar, 2009. "Capital constraints, counterparty risk, and deviations from covered interest rate parity," Staff Reports 393, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    2. Scott Happ, 1986. "The Behavior of Rates on Federal Funds and Repurchase Agreements," The American Economist, Sage Publications, vol. 30(2), pages 22-32, October.
    3. Thornton, Daniel L., 2005. "Tests of the expectations hypothesis: Resolving the anomalies when the short-term rate is the federal funds rate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 2541-2556, October.
    4. Leonardo Bartolini & Spence Hilton & Suresh Sundaresan & Christopher Tonetti, 2011. "Collateral Values by Asset Class: Evidence from Primary Securities Dealers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(1), pages 248-278.
    5. Milton Friedman & Anna J. Schwartz, 1963. "A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie63-1, March.
    6. Michael J. Fleming & Warren B. Hrung & Frank M. Keane, 2010. "Repo Market Effects of the Term Securities Lending Facility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 591-596, May.
    7. Michael J. Fleming & Kenneth D. Garbade, 2005. "Explaining settlement fails," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 11(Sep).
    8. Mark Fisher, 2002. "Special repo rates: an introduction," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, vol. 87(Q2), pages 27-43.
    9. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Identifying restrictions of linear equations with applications to simultaneous equations and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 111-132, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Christian Bredemeier & Christoph Kaufmann & Andreas Schabert, 2017. "Interest Rate Spreads and Forward Guidance," Working Paper Series in Economics 96, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    2. Abbassi, Puriya & Bräuning, Falk & Schulze, Niels, 2017. "Bargaining power and outside options in the interbank lending market," Discussion Papers 31/2017, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    3. Yuriy Kitsul & Marcelo Ochoa, 2016. "Funding Liquidity Risk and the Cross-section of MBS Returns," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-052, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Christian Bredemeier & Falko Juessen & Andreas Schabert, 2015. "Fiscal policy, interest rate spreads,and the zero lower bound," Working Paper Series in Economics 80, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    5. Cociuba, Simona E. & Shukayev, Malik & Ueberfeldt, Alexander, 2016. "Collateralized borrowing and risk taking at low interest rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 62-83.
    6. Fukunaga, Ichiro & Kato, Naoya, 2016. "Japanese repo and call markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 17-34.
    7. Linnemann, Ludger & Schabert, Andreas, 2015. "Liquidity premia and interest rate parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 178-192.
    8. Anne-Marie Rieu-Foucault, 2017. "Point sur la fourniture de liquidié publique," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-27, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    9. Zeynep Senyuz & Emre Yoldas, 2015. "Financial Stress and Equilibrium Dynamics in Money Markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-91, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Elizabeth C. Klee & Zeynep Senyuz & Emre Yoldas, 2016. "Effects of Changing Monetary and Regulatory Policy on Overnight Money Markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-084, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. N. K. Kishor & H. A. Marfatia, 2013. "Does federal funds futures rate contain information about the treasury bill rate?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(16), pages 1311-1324, August.
    12. Jaime R. Marquez & Ari Morse & Bernd Schlusche, 2012. "The Federal Reserve's balance sheet and overnight interest rates," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-66, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Simona Cociuba & Malik Shukayev & Alexander Ueberfeldt, 2013. "Interest Rate Policy and Financial Regulation: How to Control Excessive Risk Taking?," 2013 Meeting Papers 584, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Joseph E. Gagnon & Brian Sack, 2014. "Monetary Policy with Abundant Liquidity: A New Operating Framework for the Fed," Policy Briefs PB14-4, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    15. International Monetary Fund, 2013. "United States; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2013/237, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Christian Bredemeier & Falko Juessen & Andreas Schabert, 2017. "Fiscal Multipliers and Monetary Policy: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," Working Paper Series in Economics 95, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    17. Yasuo Nishiyama, 2017. "Open market operations and associated movements of the federal funds rate during the week prior to target changes," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 41(4), pages 806-828, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Stefania D'Amico & Roger Fan & Yuriy Kitsul, 2013. "The Scarcity Value of Treasury Collateral: Repo Market Effects of Security-Specific Supply and Demand Factors," Working Paper Series WP-2013-22, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    2. ALBULESCU, Claudiu Tiberiu & Pepin, Dominique, 2018. "Monetary Integration, Money-Demand Stability, and the Role of Monetary Overhang in Forecasting Inflation in CEE Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 33(4), pages 841-879.
    3. Sundaresan, Suresh & Pascoa, Mario R. & Luque, Jaime & Bottazzi, Jean-Marc, 2011. "The dollar squeeze of the financial crisis," UC3M Working papers. Economics we1139, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    4. Gibson, Heather D. & Hall, Stephen G. & Tavlas, George S., 2012. "The Greek financial crisis: Growing imbalances and sovereign spreads," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 498-516.
    5. Stephen G. Hall & P. A. V. B. Swamy & George S. Tavlas, 2012. "Milton Friedman, the demand for money, and the ECB’s monetary policy strategy," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 94(May), pages 153-186.
    6. Acharya, Viral V. & Fleming, Michael J. & Hrung, Warren B. & Sarkar, Asani, 2017. "Dealer financial conditions and lender-of-last-resort facilities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 81-107.
    7. Jean-Marc Bottazzi & Jaime Luque & Mário R. Páscoa & Suresh Sundaresan, 2012. "The Dollar Squeeze of the Financial Crisis," Post-Print halshs-00673982, HAL.
    8. Anne-Marie Rieu-Foucault, 2018. "Les interventions de crise de la FED et de la BCE diffèrent-elles ?," EconomiX Working Papers 2018-31, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    9. Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2013. "The Federal Reserve and Panic Prevention: The Roles of Financial Regulation and Lender of Last Resort," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(4), pages 45-64, Fall.
    10. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95, July.
    11. Claudiu Tiberiu Albulescu & Dominique Pépin, 2018. "Money demand stability, monetary overhang and inflation forecast in the CEE countries," Working Papers hal-01720319, HAL.
    12. William Arrata & Benoit Nguyen & Imene Rahmouni-Rousseau & Miklos Vari, 2018. "The Scarcity Effect of Quantitative Easing on Repo Rates: Evidence from the Euro Area," IMF Working Papers 2018/258, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Narayan Bulusu & Sermin Gungor, 2018. "Government of Canada Securities in the Cash, Repo and Securities Lending Markets," Discussion Papers 18-4, Bank of Canada.
    14. W. Arrata & B. Nguyen & I. Rahmouni-Rousseau & M. Vari, 2017. "Eurosystem’s asset purchases and money market rates," Working papers 652, Banque de France.
    15. Arrata, William & Nguyen, Benoît & Rahmouni-Rousseau, Imène & Vari, Miklos, 2020. "The scarcity effect of QE on repo rates: Evidence from the euro area," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(3), pages 837-856.
    16. Kenneth D. Garbade & Matthew Rutherford, 2007. "Buybacks in Treasury cash and debt management," Staff Reports 304, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    17. Valentina Aprigliano & Danilo Liberati, 2019. "Using credit variables to date business cycle and to estimate the probabilities of recession in real time," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1229, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    18. Mark Carlson & Kris James Mitchener, 2009. "Branch Banking as a Device for Discipline: Competition and Bank Survivorship during the Great Depression," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(2), pages 165-210, April.
    19. P. D. Jonson, 1979. "The State of Australian Economics: Stabilization and Industry Policies: A review article stimulated by F. H. Gruen (ed.), Surveys of Australian Economics, Volume 1," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 55(4), pages 297-305, December.
    20. Marco Gallegati, 2019. "A system for dating long wave phases in economic development," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 803-822, July.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2012-21. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbgvus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.