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Arbitrage, liquidity and exit: the repo and federal funds markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis

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Abstract

This paper examines the link between the federal funds and repo markets, before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis that began in August 2007. In particular, the paper investigates the initial transmission of monetary policy to closely related money markets, pricing of risk, and liquidity effects, and then shows how these could interact if the Federal Reserve removes the substantial amount of liquidity currently in the federal funds market. The results suggest that pass-through from the federal funds rate to the repo deteriorated somewhat during the zero lower bound period, likely due to limits to arbitrage and idiosyncratic market factors. In addition, during the early part of the crisis, the pricing of federal funds, which are unsecured loans, indicated a marked jump in perceived credit risk. Moreover, the liquidity effect for the federal funds rate, or the change in the federal funds rate associated with an exogenous change in reserve balances, weakened greatly with the increase in supply of these balances over the crisis, implying a non-linear demand for federal funds. Using these analyses, the paper then shows simulations of the dynamic effects and balance sheet mechanics of liquidity draining on the federal funds and repo rates--a tool that might be used in an exit strategy to tighten monetary policy.

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  • Morten L. Bech & Elizabeth C. Klee & Viktors Stebunovs, 2012. "Arbitrage, liquidity and exit: the repo and federal funds markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2012-21
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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Bredemeier & Christoph Kaufmann & Andreas Schabert, 2017. "Interest Rate Spreads and Forward Guidance," Working Paper Series in Economics 96, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    2. Puriya Abbassi & Falk Bräuning & Niels Schulze, 2021. "Bargaining power and outside options in the interbank lending market," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 50(2), pages 553-586, June.
    3. Zeynep Senyuz & Emre Yoldas, 2015. "Financial Stress and Equilibrium Dynamics in Money Markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-91, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Yuriy Kitsul & Marcelo Ochoa, 2016. "Funding Liquidity Risk and the Cross-section of MBS Returns," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-052, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Christian Bredemeier & Falko Juessen & Andreas Schabert, 2015. "Fiscal policy, interest rate spreads,and the zero lower bound," Working Paper Series in Economics 80, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    6. Fassas, Athanasios P., 2021. "Price discovery in US money market benchmarks: LIBOR vs. SOFR," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 204(C).
    7. Elizabeth C. Klee & Zeynep Senyuz & Emre Yoldas, 2016. "Effects of Changing Monetary and Regulatory Policy on Overnight Money Markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-084, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Cociuba, Simona E. & Shukayev, Malik & Ueberfeldt, Alexander, 2016. "Collateralized borrowing and risk taking at low interest rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 62-83.
    9. N. K. Kishor & H. A. Marfatia, 2013. "Does federal funds futures rate contain information about the treasury bill rate?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(16), pages 1311-1324, August.
    10. Jaime R. Marquez & Ari Morse & Bernd Schlusche, 2012. "The Federal Reserve's balance sheet and overnight interest rates," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-66, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. Simona Cociuba & Malik Shukayev & Alexander Ueberfeldt, 2013. "Interest Rate Policy and Financial Regulation: How to Control Excessive Risk Taking?," 2013 Meeting Papers 584, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    12. Joseph E. Gagnon & Brian Sack, 2014. "Monetary Policy with Abundant Liquidity: A New Operating Framework for the Fed," Policy Briefs PB14-4, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    13. Linnemann, Ludger & Schabert, Andreas, 2015. "Liquidity premia and interest rate parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 178-192.
    14. International Monetary Fund, 2013. "United States: Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2013/237, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Christian Bredemeier & Falko Juessen & Andreas Schabert, 2017. "Fiscal Multipliers and Monetary Policy: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," Working Paper Series in Economics 95, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    16. Fukunaga, Ichiro & Kato, Naoya, 2016. "Japanese repo and call markets before, during, and emerging from the financial crisis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 17-34.
    17. Anne-Marie Rieu-Foucault, 2017. "Point sur la fourniture de liquidié publique," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-27, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    18. Yasuo Nishiyama, 2017. "Open market operations and associated movements of the federal funds rate during the week prior to target changes," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 41(4), pages 806-828, October.

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