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Index-based weather insurance for developing countries: A review of evidence and a set of propositions for up-scaling

Listed author(s):
  • Michael R. CARTER

    ()

    (Université du Wisconsin)

  • Alain de JANVRY

    (Université de Californie Berkeley)

  • Elisabeth SADOULET

    (Université de Californie Berkeley)

  • Alexandros SARRIS

    (Université d'Athènes)

Assurance climatique indicielle pour les pays en développement : examen des faits et propositions visant à augmenter le taux de souscriptionL’assurance climatique indicielle constitue une innovation institutionnelle majeure susceptible de révolutionner l’accès à l’assurance formelle de millions de petits producteurs et d’habitants des régions rurales. Elle a fait l’objet de projets pilotes ou d’expériences au niveau individuel ou institutionnel dans de nombreux pays. Par ailleurs, des efforts de recherche importants ont été consacrés à l’évaluation de ses impacts sur l’adaptation aux chocs et la gestion du risque ainsi qu’à l’amélioration de sa conception et de sa mise en œuvre. En général, la souscription de ce type d’assurance a eu des répercussions positives. Néanmoins, le taux de souscription est demeuré globalement faible et, la plupart du temps, les conditions de souscription ne se sont pas avérées viables. Le présent article étudie les causes de la disparité constatée actuellement entre les promesses et la réalité de cette approche. Il se conclut par la suggestion d’améliorations de la conception des produits, d’interventions complémentaires visant à en encourager l’adoption et de stratégies d’augmentation viable du taux de souscription. Ses recommandations spécifiques sont les suivantes : (1) importance primordiale de la réduction du risque de base grâce à de multiples innovations technologiques, contractuelles et institutionnelles ; (2) nécessité de stratifier les risques en combinant l’assurance, le crédit, l’épargne et les investissements visant à minimiser les risques afin d’en traiter de manière optimale les différentes catégories, ce qui nécessitera l’offre coordonnée de divers produits financiers ; (3) appel aux États à intervenir sur deux fronts : d’une part, mise en œuvre de normes publiques de certification concernant le risque de base maximal des contrats d’assurance et, d’autre part, fourniture de subventions « intelligentes » pour l’apprentissage, la collecte de données, initialement la réassurance et la gestion des risques catastrophiques ; (4) adoption d’une double approche combinant la souscription de contrats d’assurance indicielle par des institutions et la répartition des indemnités entre les bénéficiaires par les institutions elles-mêmes afin de réduire le risque de base et d’améliorer la qualité de l’assurance (cette approche requiert de concevoir avec soin des règles intra-institutionnelles crédibles pour les transferts idiosyncratiques) ; enfin (5), nécessité de poursuivre la recherche sur les déterminants du comportement à l’égard du risque et de l’assurance ainsi que sur la conception de produits d’assurance indicielle combinés à d’autres instruments financiers de gestion du risque et de procéder à des analyses rigoureuses de l’impact des programmes et des expériences en cours.

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Paper provided by FERDI in its series Working Papers with number P111.

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Date of creation: Sep 2014
Handle: RePEc:fdi:wpaper:1799
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